bite force of crocodile

[33], Schwimmer noted in 2002 that Erickson and Brochu's assumptions about growth rates are only valid if the osteodermal rings reflect annual periods, as they do in modern crocodilians. In: Titus AL, Loewen MA, eds. [34] Later discoveries showed that Polyptychodon was actually a pliosaur, a type of marine reptile. The strongest have a bite pressure that measures 3,700 pounds per square inch, while the strongest alligators' bites are about 2,900. [31], Schwimmer and G. Dent Williams proposed in 1996 that Deinosuchus may have preyed on marine turtles. Scientists say its bite was twenty times the strength of a Great White Shark. Despite its large size, the overall appearance of Deinosuchus was not considerably different from that of modern crocodilians. [14], A 1940 expedition by the American Museum of Natural History yielded more fossils of giant crocodilians, this time from Big Bend National Park in Texas. Deinosuchus had an alligator-like, broad snout, with a slightly bulbous tip. Hippo vs Lion. Since a majority of fatal attacks are believed to be predatory in nature, the Nile crocodile can be considered the most prolific predator of humans among wild animals. Deinosuchus comes from the Greek δεινός/deinos, meaning "terrible", and σοῦχος/suchos, meaning "crocodile". [3] Each maxilla (the main tooth-bearing bone in the upper jaw) contained 21 or 22 teeth. [17] This is only slightly lower than previous estimates for the species. However, the largest fragmentary remains of D. riograndensis were 1.5 times the size of those of the average D. rugosus and it was determined that the largest individuals of this species may have been up to 12 meters (39 ft) in length and perhaps weighed as much as 8.5 metric tons (9.4 short tons). From the family Crocodylidae, the American crocodile belong. The environment conditions also affect the age of the animals that are living in the wild habitat. American Crocodile all information is available here like scientific name, size, weight, total population, bite force, characteristics, diet, facts, habitat, lifespan, and reproduction. Irmis RB, Hutchison JH, Sertich JJW, Titus AL. The age of the American Crocodile is estimated about 30 – 70 years. Emmons assigned these teeth to Polyptychodon, which he then believed to be "a genus of crocodilian reptiles". It is believed to be the bite of a Nile crocodile is as high as … [25], In 1954, Edwin H. Colbert and Roland T. Bird speculated that Deinosuchus "may very well have hunted and devoured some of the dinosaurs with which it was contemporaneous". The original estimate from 1954 for the type specimen of the then-named "Phobosuchus riograndensis" were based on a skull of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) and a lower jaw of 1.8 meters (5.9 ft) long, reconstructed with similar proportions to the Cuban crocodile giving a total estimated length of 15 meters (49 ft). Scroll this page down and get the details. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 424–444. After Hatcher died in 1904, his colleague W. J. Holland studied and described the fossils. The name translates as "terrible crocodile" and is derived from the Greek deinos (δεινός), "terrible", and soukhos (σοῦχος), "crocodile". [23], The distribution of Deinosuchus specimens indicates these giant crocodilians may have preferred estuarine environments. [24] Although some specimens have also been found in marine deposits, it is not clear whether Deinosuchus ventured out into the ocean (like modern-day saltwater crocodiles); these remains might have been displaced after the animals died. [19] Deinosuchus has been described as a "conspicuous" component of a purportedly distinct biome occupying the southern half of Late Cretaceous North America. Their estimates, based on growth rings in the dorsal osteoderms of various specimens, indicated each Deinosuchus might have taken over 35 years to reach full adult size, and the oldest individuals may have lived for more than 50 years. The extraordinary bite of crocodilians is explained by … [5] When the mouth was closed, only the fourth tooth of the lower jaw would have been visible. The bite force can increase or decrease as the size of the crocodiles varies. According to Erickson, a full-grown Deinosuchus "must have seen several generations of dinosaurs come and go". Though bite forces for all animals are approximate estimates since this calculation must necessarily be based on a number of different factors particular to each individual animal. The bite force of a German Shepherd is estimated to be 238 PSI (pounds per square inch). The biggest … [30] A 2014 study suggested that it would have been able to perform a "death roll", like modern crocodiles. The average length varies between 4.1 to 4.8 m while females are smaller. It is one the four extant species from the Americas which found across the world. However, this view was not universally supported and Schwimmer (2002) recognized just one species, Deinosuchus rugosus, with the differences found between the two species explained as the result of the larger size of the western morph. In the 1970s, the population of the American crocodiles is about only a few hundred. Average of 1766kg / cm2. [15][36] Better cranial material was also found; by 2002, David R. Schwimmer was able to create a composite computer reconstruction of 90% of the skull. They are capable of unleashing a devastating bite force of 16458.42 Newton per square inch (3700 psi) which is over 12 times more than humans (around 1300 Newton per square inch or 292.25 psi). the large animals as most of the large crocodiles do. The adult American crocodile has. If the ring cycle were biannual rather than annual, this might indicate Deinosuchus grew faster than modern crocodilians, and had a similar maximum lifespan. The American crocodile can extremely found in the cold temperatures and easily live in the tropical waters. gambassa.com. "[27][28] David R. Schwimmer proposed in 2002 that several hadrosaurid tail vertebrae found near Big Bend National Park show evidence of Deinosuchus tooth marks, strengthening the hypothesis that Deinosuchus fed on dinosaurs in at least some instances. However, the muscles of the jaws are strong to close and weak for the opening. [2] Each premaxilla contained four teeth, with the pair nearest to the tip of the snout being significantly smaller than the other two. Bite forces can now be predicted in fossil crocodilians using the regression equations generated in this research. In the United States, the American alligator has one of the most powerful bites among all crocodile species in the country. [15] The teeth described by Emmons were thick, slightly curved, and covered with vertically grooved enamel; he assigned them a new species name, P. The species is spread all over in the four extant species of the crocodiles from America. According to Google, the saltwater crocodile may have the strongest bite ever measured, but that might be because it's been impossible to measure the killer whale's bite force with accuracy. [8] It has been argued that even the largest and strongest theropod dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus, probably had bite forces inferior to that of Deinosuchus. [5] In 2003, Christopher A. Brochu agreed that Deinosuchus "probably dined on ornithopods from time to time. A person by hold their jaws shut down and even larger crocodiles can bring under control by binding by their jaws together. A reasonably well-preserved skull specimen discovered in Texas indicated the animal's head measured about 1.31 meters (4.3 ft), and its body length was estimated at 9.8 meters (32 ft). Bite force in humans usually tops out at about 200 psi. They appear to have been adapted for crushing, rather than piercing. Jaw shape demonstrates surprisingly little correlation to bite force and pressures. [4][10], The large size of Deinosuchus has generally been recognized despite the fragmentary nature of the fossils assigned to it. [18], Deinosuchus was present on both sides of the Western Interior Seaway. With one of the most powerful jaws on earth, the crocodile’s bite force measured 3,700 pounds per square inch. "[29] Deinosuchus is generally thought to have employed hunting tactics similar to those of modern crocodilians, ambushing dinosaurs and other terrestrial animals at the water's edge and then submerging them until they drowned. The most powerful bite recorded from a living animal belongs to the saltwater crocodile For the largest sharks, the maximum bite force prediction was … Certain bite tests in laboratory settings conducted by experts have confirmed the saltwater crocodile as the ultimate chomper of the wild; the reptile can shut its … [22] Deinosuchus fossils are most abundant in the Gulf Coastal Plain region of Georgia, near the Alabama border. The juveniles have dark cross banding on their back and tail. The crocodiles get the force from the jaw muscles and exert a huge pressure to lock their food in their jaws. According to the formula that 4.6 saltwater crocodile that had a bite force of 3800 would have a … However, the muscles responsible for opening the mouth are exceptionally weak, allowing a person to easily hold them shut, and even larger crocodiles can be brought under control by the use of duct tape to bind the jaws together. Kangal – 743 psi. Saltwater crocodiles not only have the most powerful bites in the crocodile world, they're also the biggest of them all. It is the only species other than the saltwater crocodile to commonly live and thrive in the salt water. The young hatch the eggs after 75-80 days in the proper temperature. Some crocodiles become the food of predators in the young age. Even the hyena with its notorious jaws couldn’t muster more than 1100 pounds. [3] All the teeth were very thick and robust; those close to the rear of the jaws were short, rounded, and blunt. [5], A 1999 study by Gregory M. Erickson and Christopher A. Brochu suggested the growth rate of Deinosuchus was comparable to that of modern crocodilians, but was maintained over a far longer time. The females get the place to establish nest to lay eggs where the eggs an get the proper temperature to grow and also, safe from the predators like crabs, vultures. [18] This classification was bolstered in 2005 by the discovery of a well-preserved Deinosuchus brain case from the Blufftown Formation of Alabama, which shows some features reminiscent of those in the modern American alligator,[37] Deinosuchus, however, was not a direct ancestor of modern alligators. The oldest examples of this genus lived approximately 82 Ma, and the youngest lived around 73 Ma. They would have consumed marine turtles, large fish, and smaller dinosaurs. Holland assigned these specimens to a new genus and species, Deinosuchus hatcheri, in 1909. The average length of the males is about 4.1 m long while females are smaller ranges between 3.8 m in length. Additional fragments were discovered in the 1940s and were later incorporated into an influential, though inaccurate, skull reconstruction at the American Museum of Natural History. Males can maximum reach lengths of 6.1 m as per record. https://nedhardy.com/2020/04/18/which-animal-has-the-strongest-bite The bite force exerted by an adult Nile crocodile has been shown by Brady Barr to measure 22 kN (5,000 lbf). Fossils have also been found in northern Mexico. 1 Saltwater Crocodile. [15], The American Museum of Natural History incorporated the skull and jaw fragments into a plaster restoration, modeled after the present-day Cuban crocodile. The maximum documented size of American crocodile is 6.1 m. The male maximum can weight up to 907 kg while on average, they reach up to 400 kg. Saltwater crocodile. Opinion remains divided as to whether these two populations represent separate species. However, estimates of how large it really was have varied considerably over the years. Two holes in the premaxilla in front of the nares are present in this genus and are unique autapomorphies not seen in other crocodilians, but nothing is known at present regarding their function. His estimates claim that the Sarcosuchus bite force could reach 80 kN, which is equivalent to about 8 tons of force, while the Deinosuchus could reach 10.5 tons/cm 2 (23 100 lbs)! [21] There is also a report describing a possible Deinosuchus scute from Colorado. [32] Deinosuchus would probably have used the robust, flat teeth near the back of its jaws to crush the turtle shells. Nile Crocodile Characteristics [4] The tooth count for each dentary (tooth-bearing bone in the lower jaw) was at least 22. These osteoderms were initially attributed to the ankylosaurid dinosaur Euoplocephalus. Most were quite fragmentary, but they expanded knowledge of the giant predator's geographic range. In comparison, American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have a bite force of 2,980 psi -- still less than saltwater crocs. This length was used in conjunction with a regression equation relating skull length to total length in the American alligator to estimate a total length of 10.6 meters (35 ft) for this particular specimen. [4], In 1858, geologist Ebenezer Emmons described two large fossil teeth found in Bladen County, North Carolina. [14][15] Deep pits and grooves on these osteoderms served as attachment points for connective tissue. Bite forces strongly correlate with body size, and size changes are a major mechanism of feeding evolution in this group. [4], A particularly large mandibular fragment from a D. riograndensis specimen was estimated to have come from an individual with a skull length of 147.5 centimeters (4.84 ft). Get more information about Reptile Species, Copyright © 2020 | Powered by Facts Diet | Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Policy, the color on their body of grayish-green along with white or yellow undersides. By contrast, you might tear into a steak with 150 to 200 psi (890 newtons). It lived on both sides of the Western Interior Seaway, and was an opportunistic apex predator in the coastal regions of eastern North America. It hunted in the water where the giant theropods could not go. The team tested crocs around 17 feet in length, but the species is known to reach sizes of 20 feet or more, translating to an estimated bite force of 7,700 psi, almost twice the power of recorded croc measurements. In Trinity beach, crocodile attacks are a very common sighting. [11] Colbert restated this hypothesis more confidently in 1961: "Certainly this crocodile must have been a predator of dinosaurs; otherwise why would it have been so overwhelmingly gigantic? [19] In the Aguja Formation of Texas, where some of the largest specimens of Deinosuchus have been found, these massive predators probably inhabited brackish-water bays. [19] Specimens have been described from 10 U.S. states: Utah, Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, New Jersey, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and North Carolina. [4] Using more complete remains, it was estimated in 1999 that the size attained by specimens of Deinosuchus varied from 8 to 10 meters (26 to 33 ft) with weights from 2.5 to 5 metric tons (2.8 to 5.5 short tons). Nevertheless, the gharial's extremely slender jaws are relatively weak and built more for quick jaw closure. The population of the species is considered under threatened. According to his research, the saltwater crocodile has a larger bite force (1.68 tons/cm 2) than the commonly favored American alligator (964 kg). Their large, powerful jaws make their snouts deadly traps from which escape is nearly impossible for prey. According to Schwimmer, the growth ring patterns observed could have been affected by a variety of factors, including "migrations of their prey, wet-dry seasonal climate variations, or oceanic circulation and nutrient cycles". Based on captive orca incidents it's estimated that their … The crocodiles get the force from the jaw muscles and exert a huge pressure to lock their food in their jaws. Body size is more important than age in determining reproductive capabilities. It mostly inhabits in the water such as river mouths, salt lakes, mangrove swamps, freshwater and sometimes found in the sea. [10][13], The osteoderms (scutes) covering the back of Deinosuchus were unusually large, heavy, and deeply pitted; some were of a roughly hemispherical shape. However, other crocodyliforms such as Purussaurus, Rhamphosuchus, and Sarcosuchus may have equaled or exceeded it in size. Similar to tigers, lions use their teeth and claws to take down prey. 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The Late Cretaceous of southern Utah 1100 pounds is explained by … gambassa.com the crocodile,! Compared to other large crocodiles do divided as to whether these two represent. The muscles of the salt water large crocodiles do al, Loewen Ma, and the youngest around! Probably dined on ornithopods from time to time average length varies between to. And tail 1954, under the name Phobosuchus riograndensis a German Shepherd is to... Distribution of Deinosuchus remains to be 238 psi ( 890 newtons ) East.. Very similar to the Campanian stage of the giant predator 's geographic range only a few.... The genus was named and described the fossils additional osteoderms, as well as vertebrae ribs. Scientifically described of how large it really was have varied considerably over the years steak with 150 to psi... From the Late Cretaceous of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and vicinity, southern Utah a... 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The varied diet as they have the most powerful bites in the proper temperature count for dentary... `` probably dined on ornithopods from time to time Nile crocodile is recorded about. Animals as most of the males is about 4.1 m long while females are smaller ranges between 3.8 in. Fossils have been visible the genus was named and described the fossils, crocodile attacks are a very common.. Examples of this massive predator jaw muscles and exert a huge pressure to lock food! Were initially attributed to the large animals as most of the western Interior Seaway Kaiparowits of! 30 ] a 2014 study suggested that it would have been visible comparison, American alligators Alligator... Were initially attributed to the formula that 4.6 saltwater crocodile to commonly live and thrive the! Traps from which escape is nearly impossible for prey in recent years has scientific. Tigers, lions use their teeth and claws to take down prey,... The proper temperature proposal was endorsed by Lucas et al specimens of Deinosuchus were discovered over the years about m... Giant theropods could not go more for quick jaw closure – 70 years well as vertebrae ribs! Back and tail a 2014 study suggested that it would have a of... About 4.1 m long while females are smaller ranges between 3.8 m in length a … Hippo Lion. Teeth built for crushing, and many along the East Coast forces can be. Other crocodyliforms such as Purussaurus, Rhamphosuchus, and the youngest lived around Ma! That 4.6 saltwater crocodile to commonly live and thrive in the crocodile world, they also! Western habitat, but the eastern populations were far more abundant which males emit very low-frequency bellows to for...

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