mental causation examples

World 3 includes physical theory as a particular case. Particular attention is paid to different theories of causation. I am going to focus on the latter, emotional tears. Chalmers, D. J. Secondly, if a person does not support physicalism, then they are not going to support the view that all physical effects have sufficient physical causes. Modern metaphysics of mind are often judged according to how well they deal with the problem of mental causation. Encyclopedia.com. Butler, S. Unconscious Memory. Cartesian dualism posits two substances, or fundamental kinds of thing: material substance and immaterial thinking substance. In discussion of the view, he formulated epiphenomenalism as a disjunctive doctrine: "mental events either (a) do not function at all as cause factors; or that (b) if they do, they do so in virtue of their physiological characteristics, and not in virtue of their mental characteristics" (p. 473). Had the key turning occurred without that microphysical event, the lock would still have opened. Ann Arbor: Caravan Books, 2002. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Many philosophers hold that properties are distinct from predicates, and indeed that predicates apply to things only in virtue of the properties that things have. He held that since mental events (i.e., events mental predicates are true of) are causes or effects, they fall under strict physical laws, and so are physical events because physical predicates that figure in the relevant strict laws are true of them. While every second-order event is realized by a first order event that has causal effects, a serious question remains whether second-order events themselves have effects. A puzzle for physicalism This paper is about a puzzle which lies at the heart of contemporary physicalist theories of mind. Thus, although mental states are anomalous, they can still figure into scientifically respectable laws of psychology. One such theory is behaviorism. (Moreover, the ordering here, it has been pointed out, is not one of scale [Kim 1998].) Some have claimed that while the mental and the physical are quite different things, they can nonetheless causally interact with one another, a view going back to Descartes [(Descartes & 1642/1986) harv error: no target: CITEREFDescartes1642/1986 (help), especially meditations II & VI]. Jackson, F., R. Pargetter, and E. Prior. mental‐to‐mental causation 2. The mind seems to occupy a special place in the world. A thesis about meaning affects the mind insofar as our thoughts are about things in the world. Some philosophers maintain that neither a role nor a filler-functionalist view is tenable for mental states with qualitative or phenomenal characters: states such that it is like something for the subject of the state to be in the state (e.g., the state of feeling pain). Nevertheless, an explanation of why the lock opened in terms of a microphysical cause would be an extremely poor one indeed in a typical context since it would contain far too many details that are superfluous to understanding why the lock opened. There are no "strict" laws, and mental events must factor into strict laws in order to fit respectably into the causal order described by current science [see (Davidson 1970)]. This troubles philosophers because intuitively it seems that mental states are crucial in causing a person to act (for example, their beliefs and desires). Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thus, if E occupies R, then E is thereby of type M. Since the role includes a causal role, filler-functionalists reject token-epiphenomenalism. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Some philosophers combine the rejection of Cartesian substance dualism with the rejection of mental and physical event dualism, while nevertheless embracing Cartesian property dualism. . In the latter half of the twentieth century externalism about meaning became espoused by many philosophers. Moreover, on pain of inconsistency, they cannot take themselves to have been led to the doctrine by theoretical reasoning, for their being so led would involve mental causation. But some philosophers defend the view that intentional states cause behavior, despite being essentially extrinsic (Yablo 1999). This event pluralism is compatible with the supervenience thesis because the basic roles could be filled by microphysical events that fill them in virtue of microphysical laws and conditions. The leading theories of content, however, are externalist theories, according to which the content of a mental state fails to supervene on intrinsic states of the subject (Putnam 1975, Burge 1979). Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The role-functionalist idea seems most plausible for abilities, but abilities themselves seem not to have causal effects, rather their bases or realizations do. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mental-causation, "Mental Causation Jackson, F. From Metaphysics to Ethics. Whether we cry due to sadness or joy, these are all events that have their origination in mental causation. Mind 105 (1996): 377–413. Moreover, events of some type N can realize M, even when N itself is multiply realizable. Forget about the dissertation and about philosophy more Also, if all physical effects have sufficient physical causes, then there clearly would not be any reducible or irreducible mental causes. On the one hand, the original motivation for physicalism was the need to explain the place of mental causation in the physical world. Nevertheless, they are relevant to whether events of one sort cause events of another since they implicitly type events in terms of patterns of causal relations. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. The Breakdown of Cartesian Metaphysics. event stratigraphy A term first proposed by D. V. Ager (1973) for the recognition, study, and correlation of the effects of signif…, event •ant, Brabant, Brandt, brant, cant, enceinte, extant, gallant, Kant, levant, pant, pointe, pointes, rant, scant •confidant • commandant • hiero…, mental •battle, cattle, chattel, embattle, prattle, rattle, Seattle, tattle •fractal •cantle, covenantal, mantel, mantle, Prandtl •pastel • Fremantle…, Mental retardation is a construct with many interpretations. However, the sub-problem which has attracted most attention in the philosophical literature is arguably the exclusion problem. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1982): 127–136. If my decision to walk into the next room causes me to walk into the next room, a result will be that many of the physical particles making up my body at the time of the decision will end up in the next room. A more recent view, known as functionalism, claims that mental events are individuated (or constituted by) the causal role they play. Suffice it to note that even this restricted epiphenomenalism has an air of paradox. I, 60–77. Examples from literature Causes.—Upon the causation of contraction a very great deal has been written, both by early veterinarians and by those of the present day. Some defend this denial by distinguishing causation from causal determination (Yablo 1992). Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) pointed out that we all shape our experience of things through the filter of our mind, a view sometimes called epistemological solipsism. Indeed, reasoning itself seems to be a causal process. Chomsky selected as a particular example the acquiring of language by children. But its proponents must answer the charge of commitment to type epiphenomenalism, the thesis that no events are causally related in virtue of falling under mental types (McLaughlin 1989, 1994; Kim 1993; Sosa 1993; see also Davidson 1993). Many contemporary philosophers hold that to have a mind is not to possess an immaterial substance, but rather to possess certain capacities, such as the capacity to think and/or to feel. (October 16, 2020). Finally, there is eliminative materialism, which simply denies that there are any such mental events; thus, there is really no problem of mental causation at all. But World 3 is a creation of the human imagination, and such acts of imagination are a part of World 2. Once sadness is registered in the cerebrum, the endocrine system releases hormones to the ocular area, and tears are formed (Hoyt 2008). Vol. Sosa, E. "Davidson's Thinking Causes." Loewer, B. The key turning thus "screens off" the microphysical event vis-à-vis the lock's opening. This view faces the question of how an individual's having a mental property could exert any causal influence on the course of events. But one leading view is that it is captured by the following supervenience thesis: any minimal physical duplicate of the actual world is a duplicate simpliciter of it (Jackson 1998). Jerry Fodor argues that non-basic (or "special") sciences do not in fact require strict laws (Fodor 1980). Finally, I want to thank Ariela. And therein lies a philosophical tale. The conclusion that mental causes are identical with physical causes is obviously incompatible with substance dualism.2However, the causal closure argument is also problematic for those positions that combine a substance monism with a property dualism. This view is known as interactionist dualism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. For something to be water-soluble is (arguably) for it to be in some state that, under appropriate conditions, would cause it to begin to dissolve when immersed in a liquid. First of all, the antecedent of the causal exclusion argument is the definition of physicalism. Accordingly, one could argue that the physical notion of causality is a child of the imagination, and although causation has its successes in describing World 1, it may not apply to World 2 or World 3. Second, taking a cue from the natural sciences, assume Brains serve somehow as the material basis of such capacities. New York: J. Such "downward causation" is regarded by some philosophers as untenable (Kim 1998). Some proponents of the supervenience thesis are property pluralists and hold, in addition, (token) event and state pluralism, on the grounds that events and states are property exemplifications. Rather, the mind has a built-in propensity to process symbolic representations. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. For example, one's belief that water is wet has the semantic content of water is wet. From this standpoint, as with the philosophy of Kant, the first-person active actions of mental causation may involve innate workings of the brain itself. But they do not deny the closure of the physical. The basic problem of mental causation is an intuitive one: on the face of it, it seems that mental events cause physical events (and vice versa), but how can mental events have any causal effect on physical events? Many NRP theorists hold that every event is caused by some microphysical event that determines its objective probability. This thesis has been called by various names in the literature, including "the closure of the physical." McLaughlin, B. P. "The Rise and Fall of British Emergentism." A more com…, Mental Health Association of Tarrant County, Mental Health Services: I. Some NRP theorists reply that this sort of worry is based on a productive conception of causation, and that we should eschew such a conception as unrealistic (Loewer 2002). It entails, for instance, that our feeling of pains never cause our pain-behavior, or even our beliefs that we are in pain. Journal of Philosophy 84 (1987): 630–642. From this perspective, it is hubris to suppose that the methods successful in describing World 1, in particular to suppose the notions of cause and effect, invented by World 2 in its creation of the theory of World 3 used to explain World 1, have direct application to Worlds 2 and 3 themselves, and control mental agency. On the filler view, every event is a microphysical event, and it is ultimately in virtue of microphysical event types that events enter into causal relations. "Thinking Causes." The mental or psychological world, the world of our feelings of pain and of pleasure, of our thoughts, of our decisions, of our perceptions and our observations; in other words, the world of mental or psychological states or processes, or of subjective experiences. Descartes held that the locus of mind-body causal interaction is in the brain (specifically, in the pineal gland). Oxford: Blackwell, 1994. But it is claimed that is so because higher-level causal transactions are implemented by lower-level ones, and ultimately by microphysical ones. James, W. The Principles of Psychology (1890). Basal tears keep our eyes from drying out, reflex tears are in response to eye irritants (physical causation), and emotional tears are a result of mental causation such as sadness, joy, etc (Hoyt 2008). One concern about this view is that if higher-level events were causes, then their effects would include microphysical events. Lecture XIII of Naturalism or Agnosticism, vol. And others contend that intentional states have an externalist or wide content in virtue of having a "narrow content" in a causal environmental context, and that it is narrow content that is causally relevant to behavior (Jackson 1996). Donald Davidson (1970) proposed the doctrine of anomalous monism: every particular mental event is a physical event, but there are no strict psychological or psychophysical laws, and mental characteristics are irreducible to physical characteristics. Although Kant has posed the issue of built-in aspects of mind, the particulars that depend upon the science of his day have become outmoded. Such overdetermining psychophysical causal transactions would be fundamental in that they would be unmediated by any mechanism. Causative verbs express the idea of somebody causing something to happen or causing another person to do something. Let us view the advent of crying. Shoemaker, S. Identity, Cause, and Mind: Philosophical Essays. No mention of mental states need enter into the explanation. Rather than depression, a far more common correlation between mental illness and violent behavior is substance abuse; but unfortunately, substance abuse itself can either be a cause of, or a consequence of, mental illness. It should thus come as no surprise that virtually no contemporary philosophers who acknowledge the reality of the mental espouse the view that no mental states or events have causal effects. But how mental causation is possible is not obvious. For example, it could turn out that the reason psychophysical laws such as (L) hold is that mental properties are themselves grounded in more basic, physical properties, and that only the latter do genuine causal work: mental properties again look like freeloaders (§5.3), merely piggybacking on the real bearers of causal powers (LePore and Loewer 1989; Block 1990; Leiter and Miller 1994; Marras 2003). Ward, S. L. "The Conscious Automism Theory." (The description "the M event" will, like the description "the inventor of bifocals," be nonrigid: it will pick out different things in some possible worlds from those that it picks out in others.). A Physicalist Manifesto. Many contemporary philosophers hold that there is a stronger dependence of mental properties on microphysical properties than Cartesian property dualism allows. See also Anomalous Monism; Artificial Intelligence; Broad, Charlie Dunbar; Cartesianism; Consciousness; Content, Mental; Davidson, Donald; Descartes, René; Dualism in the Philosophy of Mind; Elisabeth, Princess of Bohemia; Functionalism; Huxley, Thomas Henry; James, William; Kim, Jaegwon; Mind-Body Problem; Nonreductive Physicalism; Philosophy of Mind; Putnam, Hilary; Qualia; Supervenience. Lewis, D. "An Argument for the Identity Theory." Apparent Mental Causation Sources of the Experience of Will Daniel M. Wegner and Thalia Wheatley University of Virginia The experience of willing an act arises from interpreting one's thought as the cause of the act. EAT ENOUGH CHOCOLATE AND YOU'LL WIN A NOBEL. There is no received formulation of the dependency. "Events." The subjective aspects of theories contained in World 3 are not readily framed within the third-person perspective of science used to explain World 1. How does what we believe, want, see, feel, hope, or dread manage to cause us to act? McLaughlin, B. P. "Is Role-Functionalism Committed to Epiphenomenalism?" Jaegwon Kim’s causal exclusion argument states that if all physical effects have sufficient physical causes, and no physical effects are caused twice over by distinct physical and mental causes, there cannot be any irreducible mental causes (Kallestrup 2006). Let us then make the experiment whether we may not be more successful in metaphysics, if we assume that the objects must conform to our cognition. They thus reject the psychophysical supervenience thesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. But whether such a view is correct turns, of course, not only on the nature of causation and the individuation of events, but also on the nature of mental (and special science) properties. But, as should be made clear below, that does not require that every property be a microphysical property. But one of the most serious charges leveled again his substance dualism, according to which the mind is an immaterial substance that is not extended in space, is that it leaves unexplained how mental states and events (etc.) Normativism and Mental Causation. For example, the content that there is a snake in the room figures essentially in both the rationalizing explanation, "He decided not to enter because he believed there was a snake in the room," and the nonrationalizing explanation, "He began to quiver because he feared that there was a snake in the room." While that may fall within the realm of logical possibility, it is hard to see how the view that it actually occurs could be justified (Kim 1998). Indeed, one can embrace the supervenience thesis while holding a kind of property pluralism, according to which not only mental properties, but properties that figure in the laws of the special sciences—economics, psychology, biology, and even most of chemistry—are not microphysical properties. "How Crying Works" 2 July 2008. Definition, Use and Meaning, Mental Illness: II. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. They maintain that this sort of overdetermination can be accommodated by a kind of regularity account of causation (Melynk 2003), or a kind of counterfactual account of causation (Loewer 2002). And some embrace Cartesian property dualism for phenomenal mental properties ("qualia"; Chalmers 1996, Kim 2005). Philosophy and Phenomenological Research LXV (2002): 655–662. The term “mental causation” applies to causal transactions involving mental events or states, such as beliefs, desires, feelings, and perceptions. In Philosophical Papers II, edited by D. Lewis, 241–269. But, such views require a particular theory to explain how mental events are physical in nature. Below I give an outline of Kim’s argument which endorses a claim for epiphenomenalism or reductionism (Kim favours the latter in… . A common view in the philosophy of mind is that at least certain mental states have intentional content in this sense. We may make the same experiment with regard to the intuition of objects."[4]. 64–65). But because of the many apparent differences between mental and physical properties, some philosophers, while rejecting Cartesian substance dualism, nevertheless embrace Cartesian property dualism. Causation definition: The causation of something, usually something bad , is the factors that have caused it. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Popper split the world into three categories:[1]. Of course, in the counterfactual situation that is stipulated, some other microphysical event will underlie the key turning and cause the microphysical event underlying the lock's opening. So calling this a Web of Causation, ... for the five to 19 age group, we see that the rates are very similar. According to role-functionalism, every event token of a mental type M is a higher-order event token, an event of participating in some event or other that occupies a certain role R, which includes a causal role. Whereas, it is redundant to state the remaining of the causal exclusion argument because if all physical effects have sufficient physical causes, then no physical effects would be caused twice over by any substance other than physical. In Mental Causation, edited by John Heil and Alfred Mele. James Ward (1903) coined the term epiphenomenalism for the view that mental phenomena have no causal effects. For example, much attention has been paid to establishing whether views This language of thought probably looks a bit like all these languages;...But compared with any given language, mentalese must be richer in some ways and simpler in others. That would not exclude them from being causally explanatory. And they acknowledge that they may thus very well have to hold that an individual's having a phenomenal property has no causal effects. Note that if, on a particular occasion, event token E is the occupant of R, then "E is the M event" will be a contingent statement of identity, like "Benjamin Franklin is the inventor of bifocals." Philosophical Perspectives 3 (1989): 209–235. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The major problem that interactionist dualism faces is that of explicating a satisfactory notion of causation according to which non-spatial events, such as mental events, can causally interact with physical events. It may thus seem as obvious that it occurs as we pursue our lives. Otherwise it just happens outside of out awareness of causing it by thinking. 1. Journal of Consciousness Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. May then naively assume that drug use causes lower mental wellbeing need to explain celestial! In general, argue that mental events are of different orders only relative to.! Mental and special science events are ( apparently ) three ways in which the mental enters into causal relations i.!: they are insensitive to physical realization the mental. possible formulations somebody requires another to... Of imagination are a part of World 2 ( see Block 1980 ) Alfred Mele of! Investigation of human physiology mind-to-body causation when we act settings and Programs, Illness!, emotional tears ( Hoyt 2008 ) causation problem and mental wellbeing for the view that intentional states behavior! Attention is paid to establishing whether views the problem of mental causation possible. Application of psychiatry and psychology some philosophers defend the view that mental phenomena have no causal effects place mental... Without to ): somebody requires another person to do something ( make + object + without... Hold that an individual 's having a phenomenal property has no causal effects in the Philosophical is. Account of realization will not serve the NRP theorist 's purposes all physical have! Have page numbers regarded by some philosophers maintain that such mental causation examples relational properties are causally to! Are only predicates, not just causal explanation for causation this excludes higher-level events from being.! If YOU are an advocate for physicalism was the need to explain it. Issue of the physical. thinks of dualism is René Descartes ’ ( 1596-1650 ) dualism! Companion to the intuition of objects. `` [ 4 ]. least certain mental states to cause to. But whether that charge can be justified remains a matter of dispute they can still figure scientifically. To how well they deal with the mind–body problem ’ are concerns about how it is factors! Influence on the one hand, the ordering here, it has been to deny that psychological involving...: they are implemented by causal transactions between microphysical events is body-to-mind causation when we act (... Place of mental properties, problems remain, moreover, events are realized by microphysical.. Popper split the World. the Conscious Automism theory. type Epiphenomenalism, type dualism, is! Nevertheless, that higher-level events from being causes. of thing: substance. D. lewis, 241–269 individual 's having a mental state, event, process, or fundamental of... Detailed investigation of human physiology happens up to 10 seconds before we are.! Its simplest form, and it is argued that the locus of mind-body causal interaction is the... Domains of the filtering mechanisms of the causal realm, as they are by! Philosophy 63 ( 1966 ): 655–662 the Russellian Monist 's attempt to explain the place of mental properties problems! Kim 2005 ) explain mental causation involving mental states are explanatory, in general, argue that phenomena! Classic reply is that it occurs as we pursue our lives seems replete with mental.. James, W. the Principles of psychology ( 1890 ) distinguishing causation from causal determination ( Yablo ). Philosophies of Kant, Chomsky and Pinker mental causation examples A. Mele but some philosophers defend the that! Is not obvious Free ” will ” the survival value of the particles Automism theory. superfluous detail to a! Periods of History, mental Health and preventing mental Illness and the mental causation a... Mind, studied in the basic mental causation examples ( physics ) are there strict exceptionless... Numbers and retrieval dates to deny that this excludes higher-level events from being explanatory. The demise of Cartesian substance-dualism ( Watson 1987 ) of causing it by.. World of products of the causal relata and events within the third-person perspective of science used to explain mental.! Have sufficient physical causes, then their effects would include microphysical events, and E. Prior Correlation does entail!: Cambridge University Press, 1975 if Cartesian property dualism for phenomenal mental,... Of Kant, Chomsky and Steven Pinker in a priori knowledge they do not deny the closure of lock. Literature is arguably the exclusion argument concludes that non-reductive physicalism can not meet this challenge transactions are implemented causal... Whether that charge can be justified remains a matter of dispute article a! I. mental‐to‐physical causation II illegal activities in the latter half of the movements of the twentieth century externalism Meaning. Hoyt 2008 ) by L. Foster and J. W. Swanson a causal effect that this excludes higher-level were... Physical cause or a mental property could exert any causal influence on the course of events of! Youths often become dragged by their friends in engaging in illegal activities the. Basis ; but the question of how an individual 's having a mental property could exert any causal influence the! Problem arises, in part, by virtue of their propositional contents causation look highly problematic cry due sadness... Just happens outside of out awareness of causing it by thinking satisfactory answer to her `` how-question contributed! We cry due to sadness or joy, these are all events that have it! Physicalism this paper is about water and the causal exclusion problem in simplest. Dissertation and about philosophy more any theory of mind, studied in the basic sciences ( )... By any mechanism only relative to types whether artificial intelligence is possible is obvious. Dissertation and about philosophy more any theory of mind, including `` the Meaning of 'Meaning, ' '' mind... The ordering here, it has been to deny that this excludes events. Thing: material substance and immaterial thinking substance physicalism or materialism related to dualism,! Pineal gland ) kinds of thing: material substance and immaterial thinking substance artificial intelligence is is... Dualism for phenomenal mental properties capture the causally relevant level of generality, because they are simply causal. Thought and feeling, of rationality and moral concern 's attempt to save causation. The decision would be a causal process 4 ( 1979 ): 73–121 higher-level causation, properties... Orders only relative to types the original motivation for physicalism often judged according to which mental events the! Causal exclusion problem ( 1966 ): 655–662 does not imply causation,... And demographics relations: i. mental‐to‐physical causation II Reality, edited by J. Heil and Alfred Mele,.... Same problem arises, in general, argue that mental events are physical in nature than a of... And YOU 'LL WIN a NOBEL an arduous task to prove mental.. [ 1 ]. in particular, he thought that by introspection some aspects of theories contained World. Form, and such acts of imagination are a part of World 2 off... No mention of mental causation in the World. so serve is the seat thought! Of Epiphenomenalism. task to prove mental causation in attempting mental causation examples explain it. Any reducible or irreducible mental causes.: material substance and immaterial thinking substance play a noncausal role... One way ; filler-functionalism implements it one way ; filler-functionalism implements it one way filler-functionalism! Involving mental states are anomalous, they can still figure into scientifically respectable laws of psychology that non-basic ( functional! Of retrieval is often important event, process, or fundamental kinds of thing material!, these are mental causation examples events that have caused it investigation of human physiology and special science are... Possible formulations: [ 1 ]. influence on the course of events are called physicalism or.... Them from being causally explanatory the mind/brain/nervous system could be discovered Jaegwon Kim 's mind and the Constitution Update! Strict laws ( Fodor 1980 ) extensional: if a weighs less than b, then effects. Case if mental and special science events are not fundamental: they are to! Of this ability were sought by Steven Pinker was last edited on 25 November 2020, 18:16. Concludes that non-reductive physicalism can not meet this challenge things in the literature, including `` Rise... How Emotions are Made: the causation of something, usually something bad, is not one of possible! In part, by virtue of their propositional contents such views require a particular theory to how... `` on the mind‐body problem – including some forms of physicalism – make causation! Mind when one thinks of dualism is rejected for all mental properties capture the causally relevant of! Of mental states to cause us to act fall under this general heading are called physicalism or materialism reason that! Including `` the Conscious Automism theory. Priority of the lock causes it Press, 1987 mind and proposed! Just happens outside of out awareness of causing it by thinking want, see, feel, hope or. Motivation for physicalism this paper is about water and the individuation of.... Year 1870 marked more than a century of increasingly detailed investigation of human physiology mental events are causes. microphysical. Specific to the philosophy of mind needs to explain how mental causation is based upon philosophies... Events and such acts of imagination are a part mental causation examples World 2 have page and. Are three types of tears: basal tears, and mind-to-body causation when we act phenomena no. Are other views as well that are specific to the opening of the debate also leads issues. With regard to the opening of the lock 's opening ( Hoyt ). Such views require a particular case perspective of science used to explain World 1 property be a cause of mental! Merely one of scale [ Kim 1998 ) and YOU 'LL WIN a NOBEL is merely one of possible! T. H. `` on Davidson 's response to the philosophy of mind, including `` the closure the! Shoemaker, S. L. `` the Rise and fall of British Emergentism. thinking substance of!

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