This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 15:59. The broader concept of the "Greater Middle East" (aka the Middle East and North Africa or the MENAP) also includes the Maghreb, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia, the Comoros, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and sometimes Transcaucasia and Central Asia into the region. Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, Arameans, Assyrians, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Greek Cypriots, Jews, Kurds, Lurs, Mandaeans, Persians, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Baháʼí Faith. Middle East International relations Anti-Turkey alliance runs through Europe-Asia electricity link Greece, Cyprus and Israel intend to plug in as China … Most Middle Eastern countries (13 out of 18) are part of the Arab world. In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians, Baháʼís and Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. In addition, geographic factors often require statesmen and others to take account of Afghanistan and Pakistan in connection with the affairs of the Middle East. Open Search Search for: Search Tag: Middle East. There is also an Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa.  Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Would connect China with the Middle East Awaiting political reforms and new Government in Kyrgyzstan A long held dream along the Silk Road both old and new has been a railway that links China to Central Asia and the Middle East. Tracing the recent history and trajectory of China’s presence in the Middle East. Persian is the second most spoken language. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. By closing this message or just. Asia-Pacific and Middle East Quicklime Market Value (Us$ Mn) Forecast, by Region, 2019-2030  In Somalia, the Somali Civil War has greatly increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left for Middle Eastern countries as well as Europe and North America. The Middle East is an area defined in West Asia and North Africa. In addition to the devastating toll on human health, the COVID-19 pandemic and the plunge in oil prices are causing significant economic turmoil in the region through simultaneous supply and demand shocks.  In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. , There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. " In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.. The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran. Middle East, the lands around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, encompassing at least the Arabian Peninsula and, by some definitions, Iran, North Africa, and sometimes beyond. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East. Get the latest BBC News from the Middle East: breaking news, features, analysis and debate plus audio and video coverage from across the Middle East. [note 1].  Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. , The term Middle East has also been criticised as Eurocentric ("based on a British Western perception") by Hanafi (1998). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Designed and Delivered. The term the "Middle East" referred to the Turkmenistan, Central Asia, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, and Iran while the "Near East" referred to the Ottoman Empire and the Balkans. Due to it primarily being Arabic speaking, the Maghreb region of North Africa is sometimes included. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. The word “east” is derived from the Sanskrit word “usās” meaning “dawn” or “morning.” From the perspective of Europe and Asia, this makes sense because the sun rises in the east. Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family. European 6th-Gen Fighter Jet: After Germany & France, Spain Awards Contract To Airbus To Develop FCAS Aircraft. French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. No. Middle East / Central Asia Africa Latin America 【By Topics】 Economic Skills: Intellectual Property Rights Public Finance Microfinance International Input … Saudi overtures to Qatar and Turkey bring results. So, while Pakistan is not part of Middle East, it is sometimes considered to be part of the Greater Middle East. Overall, as of 2007[update], according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. By area, Pakistan is the 33rd largest country, covering over 340,000 square miles. Corrections?  Large numbers of Kurds, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks and Armenians as well as many Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. Mack thinks a similar format would work when trying to invest in talent in Asia and the Middle East. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language. Evolution of Middle Eastern civilizations The high antiquity of civilization in the Middle East is largely due to the existence of convenient land bridges and easy sea lanes passable in summer or winter, in dry or wet seasons. English is one of the official languages of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The central part of this general area was formerly called the Near East, a name given to it by some of the first modern Western geographers and historians, who tended to divide what they called the Orient into three regions. From the 16th century onward, the Middle East came to be dominated, once again, by two main powers: the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty. By the mid-20th century a common definition of the Middle East encompassed the states or territories of Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, and the various states and territories of Arabia proper (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, or Trucial Oman [now United Arab Emirates ]). The Middle East realignment, however, may also reverberate through South Asia, albeit not in entirely positive ways. The country … The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. World Economic Outlook Database-October 2009, "Unemployment Rates Are Highest in the Middle East", "Inclusion: Meeting the 100 Million Youth Challenge", "Social Exclusion: Comparative Analysis of Europe and Middle East Youth", "Population, total - Middle East & North Africa, World | Data", "An overview of monitoring and reduction strategies for health and climate change related emissions in the Middle East and North Africa region", "Oil consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in MENA countries", "The impact of the global energy transition on MENA oil and gas producers", "Ten health issues WHO will tackle this year", "The Greatest Threat To Global Security: Climate Change Is Not Merely An Environmental Problem", "How the Middle East is suffering on the front lines of climate change", "With climate change, life in the Gulf could become impossible", Middle East Business Intelligence since 1957, Middle East Business, Financial & Industry News, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_East&oldid=993245652, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2008, Articles needing additional references from December 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1995, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Prior to the formation of civilizations, advanced cultures formed all over the Middle East during the Stone age. Several Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri and Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. China, Japan, Korea, etc.). COVID-19 in the Middle East and Asia: Impacts and Responses November 1, 2020 John Calabrese Share In the months since the COVID-19 outbreak was first diagnosed, it has spread to over 200 countries. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. October 19, 2020 Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia Description: Countries in the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) region and those in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with swift and stringent measures to mitigate its spread and impact but continue to face an uncertain and difficult environment.  These emissions are mostly from the energy sector, an integral component of many Middle Eastern and North African economies due to the extensive oil and natural gas reserves that are found within the region.  However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". Daily statistics in Asia and the Middle East There have been at least 15,723,000 reported infections and 276,000 reported deaths caused by the novel coronavirus in Asia and the Middle East so far. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. In 2018, the MENA region emitted 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide and produced 8.7% of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) despite making up only 6% of the global population. Asia Pacific and Middle East LPG prices have rallied this week on recovering demand from China and India, North Asian buyers stocking up until February due to a … The war had been conducted with the utmost ferocity on both sides. The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Use of the term Middle East nonetheless remains unsettled, and some agencies (notably the United States State Department and certain bodies of the United Nations) still employ the term Near East. Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics.  It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. Yes, Middle East is in Asia. Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt. Islāmic and South Asian nationalism, first awakened in the era of the first World War, triumphed in the wake of the second, bringing on in the years 1946–50 the first great wave of decolonization. In fishing villages, they tug boats. With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. Additionally, the Mongols would come to dominate the region, the Kingdom of Armenia would incorporate parts of the region to their domain, the Seljuks would rule the region and spread Turko-Persian culture, and the Franks would found the Crusader states that would stand for roughly two centuries. , The Greater Middle East was a political term coined by the second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century, to denote various countries, pertaining to the Muslim world, specifically Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The name of Middle East emerged when British colonial officials in the 1800’s divided the Orient into three administrative areas: Near East (West of India), Middle East (Western Asia) and Far East (Eastern Asia).  During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Covering geo-political news and current affairs across Asia Menu. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. KPMG in Middle East & South Asia (“MESA”) is a sub-region within the KPMG network of member firms. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred. KPMG in Middle East & South Asia (“MESA”) is a sub-region within the KPMG network of member firms.  He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India. Some (like Far East) were born during British colonization, but “Near East” and “Middle East” are more modern than that. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east, Syria and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. People called it Middle East because geographically this whole area is situated in the Middle of the World. Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans. With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. The world's earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia), ancient Egypt and Kish in the Levant, all originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. By the mid-20th century a common definition of the Middle East encompassed the states or territories of Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, and the various states and territories of Arabia proper (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, or Trucial Oman [now United Arab Emirates]). They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards. " After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East). According to the World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($794,228), Saudi Arabia ($467,601) and Iran ($385,143) in terms of Nominal GDP. Middle Eastとは。意味や和訳。〔the ～〕中東（((米))Mideast）（⇒Far East，Near East）Middle Eastの派生語Middle Eastern形 - 80万項目以上収録、例文・コロケーションが豊富な無料 … During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: NATO and the United States on one side, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. , Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) refers to changes in the climate of the MENA region and the subsequent response, adaption and mitigation strategies of countries in the region. It’s actualy the Western part of Asians Continent, it starts from Iran in Eastern side to Turkey in Extreme West. It's South Asian. The pandemic is exacerbating existing economic and social challenges, calling for urgent action to mitigate the threat of long-term damage to incomes and growth. a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it. , Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, and the Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.  It is also commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. [note 2]. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. With the beginning of the Asian stage underway, Drive Project has traversed six Middle Eastern nations: Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain and the UAE. Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. By Region Global Americas Europe Middle East & Africa Asia Pacific Index Finder Browse indices based on your criteria. Clare Richardson-Barlow on East Asia’s Turn to Renewable Energy Trans-Pacific View | Diplomacy China in the Middle East: Influence and Investment Insights from … The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. In the early 2000s, the term “Greater Middle East" was introduced in reference to the countries that are continuously connected from Morocco in the west to Pakistan in the east. Omissions? The Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvar-e miyāneh), the Hebrew is המזרח התיכון (hamizrach hatikhon) and the Turkish is Orta Doğu. In German the term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term Mittlerer Osten is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in Russian Ближний Восток or Blizhniy Vostok, Bulgarian Близкия Изток, Polish Bliski Wschód or Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. The British and…, The war between Iraq and Iran, which began in 1980, also reached a conclusion. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s.  Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel's population, the other 20% using Arabic. The change in usage began to evolve prior to World War II and tended to be confirmed during that war, when the term Middle East was given to the British military command in Egypt. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. このサイトのレシピはどこの国にもある、伝統的なアラブ料理です。そのため、できるだけ元の形や味から離れないようにしました。 しかし、私たちは日本人です。味に工夫をしました。私たち日本人の味覚にも合う、とてもおいしいアラブ料理になりました。 Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns, Romani, and Afro-Arabs. The region is one of the regions were agriculture was independently discovered, and from the Middle East it was spread, during the Neolithic, to different regions of the world such as Europe, the Indus Valley and Eastern Africa. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports. The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf. IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Ismael, Jacqueline S., Tareq Y. Ismael, and Glenn Perry. The designation, Mashriq, also from the Arabic root for East, also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the Maghreb, the western part).  If greenhouse gas emissions are not significantly reduced, part of the MENA region risks becoming uninhabitable before the year 2100. by MK Bhadrakumar December 6, 2020 December 6, 2020. 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