Paraphrasing definitions provided in the literature, we define predictive policing as using sophisticated computational methods to collect and analyze data about previous crimes (and possibly non-crime data) in order to predict which individuals or Information that has recently come to light from 2018 and 2019 suggests that the IJOP is used not only for picking out targets for detention, as described in the May 2019 Human Rights Watch report, but also to provide data for Xinjiang’s larger government information system, that powers a range of government functions. In one case, a man was detained for having studied the Quran in the mid-80s, and having “let his wife wear a veil” in the early 2000s. 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Having mismatched identity, including using a cellphone number or ID card not registered in one’s name, having more than one hukou (residency registration), or having falsified official documents like marriage certificates. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. The mass surveillance and arbitrary detention of Xinjiang’s Turkic Muslims violate fundamental rights under China’s constitution and international human rights law. The entry for “Ms. Instead, I … Predictive policing software uses data to plot points on a map to identify “hot spots” for criminal activity, so that departments can assign officers accordingly. Ms. T’s sister believes Ms. T is being forced to work in a factory against her will, noting that Ms. T had been training for a different career before she was detained. Having “extremist thoughts” or downloading “extremist” audiovisual content. But laws that impose criminal punishment for what has been called “indirect incitement”—for example, justifying or glorifying terrorism—encroach on expression protected under international human rights law. The authorities listed “terrorism” and “extremism,” both perilously over-expansive terms in Chinese law, as the reasons for detaining about 10 percent (or over 200) of the people on the list. The official said: [W]e wouldn’t be able to finish the many verification tasks if we were to go through them all seriously.… But because we’ve been working [like this] for so long, whether it is our conscience or that we are tired, right now what’s left [among officials] is just grievances and complaints; everyone wants to leave, nobody is doing this work properly. Kanagawa police near Tokyo hope to put a predictive policing system into practice on a trial basis before the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, sources said. Using suspicious (or “minority” 小众) software, in particular peer-to-peer file sharing application. In 2003, a group of entrepreneurs set up the company Palantir, named after J. R. R. Tolkien’s seeing-stones in Lord of the Rings. The same Turpan County scheme also draws on information gathered from “Physicals for All,” another compulsory data collection program in which medical and health data is collected. The design and development of predictive policing systems are often touted as “objective” and “neutral”, but prejudices and stereotypes are embedded in the models and algorithms. Later on, we rarely marked someone as suspicious. Many Canadian police departments are using predictive policing software, but with a twist —forecasting where a crime will take place. Early on, it received seed funding from the venture capital arm of the CIA, In-Q-Tel, where the chairman of the Board of Trustees is none-other than ASU’s Michael Crow. The Aksu List, dated around late 2018, is similar to another leaked file, the Karakax List. Column F appears to be the reasons officials give for detaining a person. The use of automation—which the authorities claim helps them identify those harboring the “ideological virus” of being disloyal to the Chinese Communist Party in a thorough and “precise” manner—can also lead to sloppy policing. Special thanks to Yael Grauer for additional writing and research. Those facing detention have no right to due process, including access to lawyers and family members, or a chance to stand trial to contest such allegations. In one case, a man was subjected to “political education” because he had been detained in 2014 for 15 days for carrying a knife and for not “properly explaining” the incident. July 17, 2020. Some entries say the individual was detained in a camp after completing a prison sentence, and 20 list the crimes. The information is uploaded to the Xinjiang Traffic Police Headquarters in a timely manner. “The Aksu List provides further insights into how China’s brutal repression of Xinjiang’s Turkic Muslims is being turbocharged by technology,” said Maya Wang, senior China researcher. PredPol was used by the LAPD for nine years during which time critics had lobbied for police departments to cease using it, noting it is unjust and racist. The company Palantir hit the headlines this week as it made its debut on the New York Stock exchange. ئۇيغۇر تىلىدىكى قىسقىچە مەزمۇنى ۋە تەۋسىيەلىرىنى چۈشۈرۈڭ: Türkçe dilinde rapor özeti ve tavsiyeleri indirmek için tıklayınız. Since the method works in certain cases, however, I do not encourage a complete ban on predictive policing. And in May 2018, the grassroots organization Stop LAPD Spying Coalition released a report raising concerns over the use of Palantir and other technologies by the Los Angeles Police Department for predicting where crimes are likely to occur, and who might commit them. From Films from the Future (2018), Mango Publishing. But in recent years, Palantir’s use in “predictive policing” has been attracting increasing attention. Let’s say we had to evaluate a person whom the system had lost track of. Mission Creep In one case, losing an ID—subsequently used by someone else—was a cause for detention. If the designers of predictive policing systems believe they know who the “bad people” are, or even if they have unconscious biases that influence their perceptions, there’s a very real danger that crime prevention technologies end up targeting groups and neighborhoods that are assumed to have a higher tendency toward criminal behavior. A leaked list of over 2,000 detainees from Aksu prefecture provided to Human Rights Watch is further evidence of China’s use of technology in its repression of the Muslim population. Human Rights Watch called that number and found that it belongs to Ms. T’s sister. Yet Human Rights Watch research indicates that neither agency appears to be involved in these detentions. “‘Predictive policing’ platforms are really just a pseudo-scientific fig leaf for the Chinese government to justify vast repression of Turkic Muslims,” Wang said. The Aksu List: Analysis One of the more prominent concerns raised around predictive policing is the dangers of human bias swaying data collection and analysis. About half of the list are men and the other half women. Governments may prosecute speech that incites criminal acts—speech that directly encourages the commission of a crime, is intended to result in criminal action, or is likely to result in criminal action—whether or not criminal action does, in fact, result. The embedded geographic coordinates suggest that they were taken from within a large building complex previously identified as a political education camp by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a think tank. The resolution, released by the National Speech and Debate Association on February 1, 2020, is: The company excels at using big data to detect, monitor, and predict behavior, based on myriads of connections between what is known about people and organizations, and what can be inferred from the information that’s available. Predictive Policing or Targeted Harassment? A note on the term “predictive policing” is in order. The missing piece of this Predictive policing puzzle is the Facial Recognition Tech which can’t be deemed as inaccessible, as evident by Russian Apps like FindFace: A NtechLab App Launched in the mid-2010s, where the app allowed users to take a picture of someone and match their face to their social media profiles on Russian site Vkontakte (VK). “Generally acting suspiciously,” “having complex social ties” or “unstable thoughts,” or “having improper [sexual] relations.”. Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Human Rights Watch “reverse engineered” the IJOP mobile app in May 2019 and revealed the dubious criteria this mass surveillance system was programmed to flag, including many lawful behaviors. While in theory this process could possibly enhance public safety, in practice it creates or worsens far more problems than it solves. “The Chinese government owes answers to the families of those on the list: why were they detained, and where are they now?” There appear to be three levels: “common management” (普管区), “strict management” (严管区), and “strong management” (强管区). But this hope has to be tempered by our unfailing ability to delude ourselves in the face of evidence to the contrary, and to justify the unethical and the immoral in the service of an assumed greater good. ASU Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory. The Los Angeles Police Department is dumping a controversial predictive policing program that forecasts where property crimes will happen. You didn’t go anywhere?” As long as they said yes, we’d fill out [the form in the app] noting the villager said he was working in the fields, he didn’t go anywhere but everything was fine. PURCHASE AND DOWNLOAD RIGHT NOW!! At both levels, most people were flagged for their relationships, their communications (通联), or for being related to (家族人员 or 亲属), or traveling, or staying with (同行同住) someone the authorities consider suspicious. Predictive policing, also known as analytics-driven policing, is an outgrowth of an increasing body of evidence that shows crime can be reduced if enough data can be analyzed. Human Cogs in the Machine The list includes detainees flagged by a Chinese predictive policing program, called the Integrated Joint Operations Platform (IJOP), which collects data and identifies candidates for detention. Opposition groups even gathered academics to speak out against the use of PredPol. The Aksu List also contains 27 unique Chinese mobile phone numbers. Yet the authorities did not allege that these detainees committed, incited, supported, or plotted any acts of violence, much less any acts that would rise to the level of terrorism. An examination of the Aksu List suggests that Xinjiang’s Turkic Muslims are presumed guilty until proven innocent. The sheet has columns that include the person’s name, gender, the date of their detention in a political education camp, the reason for their detention, the number of their detention facility or cell, the batch number from which the IJOP systems picked them out, and the reason why, usually no more than a sentence or two. Ms. T’s sister said that Xinjiang police interrogated Ms. T around the time the Aksu List recorded her detention date. A 2019 study by the AI Now Institute, for example, describes how some police departments rely on “dirty data” — or data that is “derived from or influenced by corrupt, biased, and unlawful practices,” including both discriminatory policing and manipulation of crime statistics — to inform their predictive policing systems. In most cases, their photos, names, and locations indicate that they are Uyghurs from Aksu. 2020 224 pp. The Aksu List: Authentication The Aksu List does not provide any additional information on the content of such audiovisual materials. October 2020. Palantir is just one of an increasing number of data collection and analytics technologies being used by law enforcement to manage and reduce crime. Human Rights Watch analyzed this material to assess the credibility of the Excel spreadsheet, as it was obtained from the same source. “The Chinese government should immediately shut down the IJOP, delete all the data it has collected, and release everyone arbitrarily detained in Xinjiang.”, Reverse Engineering a Xinjiang Police Mass Surveillance App, Download the appendix of the report in English, Unduh ringkasan dan rekomendasi dalam [Bahasa Indonesia], Télécharger le résumé et les recommandations en français, Descargue aquí el resumen y las recomendaciones en español. We obtained two manuals that explained how the predictive policing apparatus functioned — one from 2016 and a more recent version from 2018. About one in five in this group were tagged for downloading or sharing “terrorism” or “extremism” content. We also obtained a sample of emailed daily intelligence summaries and four “actionable intelligence” presentations created by … What is the role of data reliability in this?See all contributions to this question.As budgets have b The concerns of "dirty data" in data-driven policing. The excerpt below is part of a longer piece on the dangers of using advanced technology to try and differentiate between a propensity toward “good” and “bad” behavior that riffs off the movie Minority Report (hence the references to the film below)—you can read a longer excerpt from the chapter on Medium. Human Rights Watch shared the Excel sheet with Uyghur diaspora communities from that region, who identified 18 names on the list as their immediate family members. We’d [go to his home and] ask, “these last few days you were working the fields? September 30, 2020 — … The file’s metadata suggests that it was last modified in late 2018. Yet there’s growing concern that, without sufficient due diligence, seemingly beneficial data and AI-based approaches to policing could easily slip into profiling and “managing people” before they commit a criminal act. This analysis provides Human Rights Watch with additional confidence in the authenticity of the Aksu List. The police had specifically asked about her sister because she lives abroad. At both stages, the IJOP system assists officials in selecting targets. Article 37 of the constitution states that all arrests must be approved by either the procuratorate (the state prosecution agency) or the courts. The College of Global Futures is a unit of the, Corporate Engagement and Strategic Partnerships, made its debut on the New York Stock exchange, controversial work on predictive policing, released a report raising concerns over the use of Palantir, David Attenborough’s Call to Action in A Life on Our Planet is Compelling, but Flawed. Ms. T’s sister said she has had no direct contact with her family in Xinjiang since then, but heard via an intermediary that Ms. T—presumably upon her release from a political education camp—was now working in a factory five days a week and allowed to go home only on weekends. In August, Radio Free Asia’s Uyghur Service provided Human Rights Watch with an Excel spreadsheet titled “List of IJOP Trainees” with the names of over 2,000 people obtained from an anonymous Xinjiang source in late 2018. But in recent years, Palantir’s use in “predictive policing” has been attracting increasing attention. 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