So if you want colleagues to listen and agree with you, first agree with them. "There are implications across cultures as well," she adds. By including a brief anecdote about her upbringing when she kicked off a meeting or made a presentation, she was able to show her colleagues a warm and relatable side of herself. Warmth is not easy to fake, of course, and a polite smile fools no one. When we feel confident and calm, we project authenticity and warmth. A character's physical life informs the role. Warmth may be harder to fake, but confidence is harder to talk yourself into. Warmth is the conduit of influence: It facilitates trust and the communication and absorption of ideas. Interested in improving your business? Place your hands comfortably on your knees or rest them on the table. Ann Richards, the former governor of Texas, played the happy warrior by pairing her assertiveness and authority with a big smile and a quick wit that made it clear she did not let the rough-and-tumble of politics get her down. social psychology stereotypes nonverbal behavior hormones leadership. But self-doubt completely undermines your ability to project confidence, enthusiasm, and passion, the qualities that make up presence. Stillness demonstrates calm. Being calm and confident creates space to be warm, open, and appreciative, to choose to act in ways that reflect and express your values and priorities. Dana Carney, Amy Cuddy, and Andy Yap suggest that people adopt “power poses” associated with dominance and strength across the animal kingdom. So how do you produce a natural smile? Business School faculty. Research by one of us, Amy Cuddy, and colleagues Susan Fiske, of Princeton, and Peter Glick, of Lawrence University, shows that people judged to be competent but lacking in warmth often elicit envy in others, an emotion involving both respect and resentment that cuts both ways. Don’t pivot your body away from the person you’re engaging with. Posted June 23rd, ... Guhan Subramanian is the Professor of Law and Business at the Harvard Law School and Professor of Business Law at the Harvard Business School. When you move, move deliberately and precisely to a specific spot rather than casting your limbs about loose-jointedly. For the most part people underestimate the powerful connection of warmth and overestimate the importance of competence. Cuddy believes American poses are bigger and more flamboyant than what would be acceptable in Korea or Japan, for example, and expects to focus on this question in future research. yogis knew it long ago... manipulating the mind and brain through the body. Having come up through the ranks as a highly analytic engineer, she projected competence and determination, but not much warmth. Organizational psychologists Andrea Abele, of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, and Bogdan Wojciszke, of the University of Gdańsk, have documented this phenomenon across a variety of settings. One nominee exhuded confidence, assertiveness and personal warmth, the other seemed unconvincing in all three... however we should not underestimate the importance (for students as well as politicians) of careful, substantive preparation and experience as strong underpinnings for sustained, rather than momentary confidence. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. An excellent article. Indeed, insights from the field of psychology show that these two dimensions account for more than 90% of the variance in our positive or negative impressions we form of the people around us. If you want to effectively lead others, you have to get the warmth-competence dynamic right. To be sure, we notice plenty of other traits in people, but they’re nowhere near as influential as warmth and strength. The following items are tagged amy cuddy: Why First Impressions Matter in Negotiation. Partner, Construction Systems Group, Inc. General Manager, Education, Institute of Executive Coaching and Leadership, Vice Chairman of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and also Chairman / Co- Chairman / Vice chairman of a few Bhavan's Educational Institutions, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Hyderabad, India. It ultimately boils down to how we connect to one another. This preference for warmth holds true in other areas as well. How you present yourself in workplace settings matters a great deal to how you’re perceived by others. "The Benefit of Power Posing Before a High-Stakes Social Evaluation." the warrior) that seem to literally make you feel stronger and braver. Although we refer to these postures as power poses, they don’t increase your dominance over others. I now plan to spend a little time each day with my feet up on desk :-). Here is a direct link to complete HBR article. Most leaders today approach their jobs by emphasizing competence, strength, and credentials. Aim for a tone that suggests that you’re leveling with people—that you’re sharing the straight scoop, with no pretense or emotional adornment. This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page. Learn about fresh research and ideas from Harvard Let’s look now at some best practices. Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger are the authors of, Compelling People: The Hidden Qualities That Make Us Influential. That’s the sweet spot when it comes to influence and the ability to get people to fully accept your message. Articles & Insights. Amy Cuddy is a Harvard Business School professor and social psychologist who studies how nonverbal behavior and snap judgments influence people. Earning the trust and appreciation of those around you feels good. We may feel a leader’s warmth but remain unsure whether it is directed at us; we sense her strength but need reassurance that it is squarely aimed at the shared challenge we face. Associate Professor, Harvard University. The Harvard community has made this article openly available. I'm particularly intrigued as a former yoga teacher (current yoga student) because there are "power poses" in yoga (e.g. People who instruct their children to stand up straight and smile are on to something: This simple combination is perhaps the best way to project strength and warmth simultaneously.If you want to effectively lead others, you have to get the warmth-competence dynamic right. Amy J.C. Cuddy is an associate professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Such leaders face troubles without being troubled. In contrast, low-power poses increased cortisol about 17 percent and decreased testosterone about 10 percent. BATNA. The strategies we suggest may seem awkward at first, but they will soon create a positive feedback loop. This is fascinating stuff! Most of us work hard to demonstrate our competence. Not surprisingly, high-power posers of both sexes also reported greater feelings of being powerful and in charge. We do come across persnalities who indulge in such faking games. She has served as a faculty member at Rutgers University, Kellogg School of Management and Harvard Business School. "It's not about politics," she says. People have a need to be included, to feel a sense of belonging. Once you establish your warmth, your strength is received as a welcome reassurance. People deeply desire to be heard and seen. New research shows that it's possible to control those feelings a bit more, to be able to summon an extra surge of power and sense of well-being when it's needed: for example, during a job interview or for a key presentation to a group of skeptical customers. A natural smile, for instance, involves not only the muscles around the mouth but also those around the eyes—the crow’s feet. It burns into our memory in a way that cooler emotions don’t. Here are ways to avoid that trap. People often are more influenced by how they feel about you than by what you're saying. "The power poses paper came about in part because my coauthor Dana and I had noticed that women in our classes seemed to be participating less," says Cuddy, who teaches the MBA elective Power and Influence. Research by Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman drives this point home: In a study of 51,836 leaders, only 27 of them were rated in the bottom quartile in terms of likability and in the top quartile in terms of overall leadership effectiveness—in other words, the chances that a manager who is strongly disliked will be considered a good leader are only about one in 2,000. Bear in mind that the signals we send can be ambiguous—we can see someone’s reaction to our presence, but we may not be sure exactly what the person is reacting to. A better way to create vocal warmth is to speak with lower pitch and volume, as you would if you were comforting a friend. This would certainly draw some parallels as to what visual pose for example on a website interface be considered more trusting ? The best way to gain influence is to combine warmth and strength—as difficult as Machiavelli says that may be to do. Amy Cuddy. Amy Joy Casselberry Cuddy (born July 23, 1972) is an American social psychologist, author and speaker. The article was cited as a "Breakthrough Business Idea" for 2009 by Harvard Business Review. Those in the low-power group were posed for the time period in two restrictive poses: sitting in a chair with arms held close and hands folded, and standing with arms and legs crossed tightly. For example, Mascha van ’t Wout, of Brown University, and Alan Sanfey, of the University of Arizona, asked subjects to determine how an endowment should be allocated. In fact, some psychologists would argue that the drive to affiliate ranks among our primary needs as humans. Cuddy's overall research agenda focuses on stereotyping and questions around how we form judgments of others' warmth and competence. In "Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance", Cuddy shows that simply holding one's body in expansive, "high-power" poses for as little as two minutes stimulates higher levels of testosterone (the hormone linked to power and dominance in the animal and human worlds) and lower levels of cortisol (the "stress" hormone that can, over time, cause impaired immune functioning, hypertension, and memory loss). Cuddy's most cited academic work inâ¦ As a leader, you must make sure you’re a part of the key groups in your organization. "People tend to spend too much energy focusing on the words they're sayingâperfectly crafting the content of the messageâwhen in many cases that matters much less than how it's being communicated. I tell my clients that it is about assuming the role you want to play, not the one you feel you are cast in at the moment. It's not about the content of the message, but how you're communicating it. I find the research and its findings are extremely interesting. Trust also facilitates the exchange and acceptance of ideas—it allows people to hear others’ message—and boosts the quantity and quality of the ideas that are produced within an organization. It would be very interesting to see some research on how the different yoga posses alter different hormone levels and if the way they are combine make a difference in the results, i.e combining a warrior pose with a stretch, etc,. When we have power over others, our ability to see them as individuals diminishes. And when we are connected with ourselves, it is much easier to connect with others. The clever ones will satisfy you that they are right and, despite the contra logic in your nmind, you will be hypnotized to believe. Nevertheless, I can't help but find it a little disturbing. Most likely because the leaders had a heightened sense of control—a psychological factor known to have a powerful stress-buffering effect. We can't be the alpha dog all of the time. Social psychologist Cuddy, an assistant professor of business administration, investigates how people perceive and categorize others. Although there is some disagreement about the proper labels for the traits, researchers agree that they are the two primary dimensions of social judgment. She had trained in acting as an undergrad, and perhaps she knew what you have demonstrated! Earning the trust and appreciation of those around you feels good. Happy warriors reassure us that whatever challenges we may face, things will work out in the end. If understanding how you are influenced and can influence others feels a bit too Machiavellian, Cuddy helps bring it down a notch. According to research by Pranjal Mehta, of the University of Oregon, and Robert Josephs, of the University of Texas, the most effective leaders, regardless of gender, have a unique physiological profile, with relatively high testosterone and relatively low cortisol. And if you show no warmth, beware of those who may try to derail your efforts—and maybe your career. Especially when facing a high-pressure situation, it is useful for leaders to go through a brief warm-up routine beforehand to get in the right state of mind, practicing and adopting an attitude that will help them project positive nonverbal signals. Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger are the coauthors of Compelling People: The Hidden Qualities That Make Us Influential. Even if you’re not feeling particularly warm, practicing these approaches and using them in formal and informal situations can help clear your path to influence. In other words, you can smile long enough that it makes you feel happy. In a study led by Oscar Ybarra, of the University of Michigan, participants playing a word game identified warmth-related words (such as “friendly”) significantly faster than competence-related ones (such as “skillful”). Generally speaking, an inside-out approach is more effective. Cuddy, Amy J.C., Caroline A. Wilmuth, and Dana R. Carney. Tilt your head slightly and keep your hands open and welcoming. When we respect someone, we want to cooperate or affiliate ourselves with him or her, but resentment can make that person vulnerable to harsh reprisal (think of disgraced Tyco CEO Dennis Kozlowski, whose extravagance made him an unsympathetic public figure). Understanding a little bit about our chemical makeup can shed some light on how this works. Recent research also suggests that across the animal kingdom feelings of strength and power have close ties to two hormones: testosterone (associated with assertiveness, reduced fear, and willingness to compete and take risks) and cortisol (associated with stress and stress reactivity). Feeling like an impostor—that you don’t belong in the position you’re in and are going to be “found out”—is very common. I wouldn't says it's 'faking' however. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy argues that "power posing" -- standing in a posture of confidence, even when we don't feel confident -- can boost feelings of confidence, and might have an impact on our chances for success. This can help you channel the sense of comfort you feel with close friends or family. When people want to project warmth, they sometimes amp up the enthusiasm in their voice, increasing their volume and dynamic range to convey delight. Although most of us strive to demonstrate our strength, warmth contributes significantly more to others’ evaluations of us—and it’s judged before competence. New research suggests that people respond more positively to someone who comes across as trustworthy rather than confident. Fear can undermine cognitive potential, creativity, and problem solving, and cause employees to get stuck and even disengage. These are the people we listen to. At first glance, I think this is an incredibly great idea, and also could be an extension of Sheryl Sandberg's whole concept of "leaning in" for women. Aim for body language that feels professional but relaxed. Projecting both traits at once is difficult, but the two can be mutually reinforcing—and the rewards substantial. Cuddy acknowledges that there are moderating factors in how easily some groups can use traditional power poses. Niccolò Machiavelli pondered that timeless conundrum 500 years ago and hedged his bets. You have to connect with them before you can lead them.". Their behavior is not relaxed, but they are relaxed emotionally. Feeling in command of a situation does, too. Cultivating warmth and trust also boosts the quantity and quality of novel ideas that are produced. This work extends that finding on facial feedback, which is decades old, by focusing on postures and measuring neuroendocrine levels.". Crossing your arms indicates coldness and a lack of receptivity. So start by â¦ It goes hand in hand with leaning in. Most people hate uncertainty, but they tolerate it much better when they can look to a leader who they believe has their back and is calm, clearheaded, and courageous. “It may be answered that one should wish to be both,” he acknowledged, “but because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved.”. Amy Cuddy revealed that we can actually change feelings we have about our own status through the physical positions we take with our bodies. That’s often enough to set a congenial tone. By adopting these postures for just two minutes prior to social encounters, their research shows, participants significantly increased their testosterone and decreased their cortisol levels. Beginning with warmth allows trust to develop, facilitating both the exchange and the acceptance of ideas—people really hear your message and become open to it. You might offer something personal right off the bat, such as recalling how you felt at a similar point in your career. Feeling in command and confident is about connecting with yourself. In addition to causing the desired hormonal shift, the power poses led to increased feelings of power and a greater tolerance for risk. Your story matters Citation Cuddy, Amy J.C., Caroline A. Wilmuth, and Dana R. Carney. In another experiment, in which participants were asked to describe an event that shaped their self-image, most told stories about themselves that emphasized their own competence and self-determination (“I passed my pilot’s license test on the first try”), whereas when they described a similar event for someone else, they focused on that person’s warmth and generosity (“My friend tutored his neighbor’s child in math and refused to accept any payment”). Now behavioral science is weighing in with research showing that Machiavelli had it partly right: When we judge others—especially our leaders—we look first at two characteristics: how lovable they are (their warmth, communion, or trustworthiness) and how fearsome they are (their strength, agency, or competence). Think of the difference between method acting and classical acting: In method acting, the actor experiences the emotions of the character and naturally produces an authentic performance, whereas in classical acting, actors learn to exercise precise control of their nonverbal signals. Interesting research and findings! Cuddy earned her Ph.D. from Princeton University in 2005 and was a professor at Harvard Business School from 2008 to 2017, Northwestern Universityâs Kellogg School of Management from 2006 to 2008, and Rutgers University from 2005 to 2006. In fact, if you see yourself as an impostor, others will, too. Research by Amy Cuddy, Susan Fiske, and Peter Glick suggests that the way others perceive your levels of warmth and competence determines the emotions you’ll elicit and your ability to influence a situation. Avoid sitting “at attention” or in an aggressive posture. They’re about personal power—your agency and ability to self-regulate. Moreover, the higher their rank and the more subordinates they managed, the lower their cortisol level. The traits can actually be mutually reinforcing: Feeling a sense of personal strength helps us to be more open, less threatened, and less threatening in stressful situations. But your presence, or demeanor, always counts, too. The result: Shared organizational resources fall victim to the tragedy of the commons. On the other hand, people judged as warm but incompetent tend to elicit pity, which also involves a mix of emotions: Compassion moves us to help those we pity, but our lack of respect leads us ultimately to neglect them (think of workers who become marginalized as they near retirement or of an employee with outmoded skills in a rapidly evolving industry). Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, Copyright Â© President & Fellows of Harvard College, Nervous about an upcoming presentation or job interview? "Our research has broad implications for people who suffer from feelings of powerlessness and low self-esteem due to their hierarchical rank or lack of resources," says HBS assistant professor Amy J.C. Cuddy, one of the researchers on the study. These postures are open, expansive, and space-occupying (imagine Wonder Woman and Superman standing tall with their hands on their hips and feet spread apart). That can be effective in the right setting, but if those around you have done nothing in particular to earn your adulation, they’ll assume either that you’re faking it or that you fawn over everyone indiscriminately. Controlling for subjects' baseline levels of both hormones, Cuddy and her coauthors found that high-power poses decreased cortisol by about 25 percent and increased testosterone by about 19 percent for both men and women. It is hard to overstate the importance of good posture in projecting authority and an intention to be taken seriously. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. No one receives enough praise. Before people decide what they think of your message, they decide what they think of you. If coworkers can be trusted to do the right thing and live up to their commitments, planning, coordination, and execution are much easier. Leaders who project strength before establishing trust run the risk of eliciting fear, and along with it a host of dysfunctional behaviors. And when you are finished moving, be still. Finally, participants were asked to indicate how "powerful" and "in charge" they felt on a scale from one to four. Experiments by neuroscientist Naomi Eisenberger and colleagues suggest that the need is so strong that when we are ostracized—even by virtual strangers—we experience pain that is akin to strong physical pain. Doing both lets you influence people more effectively. For example, if you’re highly competent but show only moderate warmth, you’ll get people to go along with you, but you won’t earn their true engagement and support. Your leadership becomes not a threat but a gift. Shift the spotlight to others. Feeling in command of a situation does, too. To exert influence, you must balance competence with warmth. As soon as you become one of “them”—the management, the leadership—you begin to lose people. She is a lecturer at both Harvard Law School and the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and she has been an adjunct professor at Georgetown University Law Center and a lecturer at Tufts â¦ The best way to gain influence is to combine warmth and strength—as difficult as Machiavelli says that may be to do. Thank you for the reinforcement of posture. The hormonal shifts measured in this experiment show that such changes can be influenced independent of role, situation, or any consciously focused thoughts about power. Acknowledge people’s fear and concerns when you speak to them, whether in formal meetings or during watercooler chats. The primacy of warmth manifests in many interrelated ways that powerfully underscore the importance of connecting with people before trying to lead them. When we smile sincerely, the warmth becomes self-reinforcing: Feeling happy makes us smile, and smiling makes us happy. It just means reaching your full height, using your muscles to straighten the S-curve in your spine rather than slouching. We tend to mirror one another’s nonverbal expressions and emotions, so when we see someone beaming and emanating genuine warmth, we can’t resist smiling ourselves. One thing to avoid: smiling with your eyebrows raised at anyone over the age of five. Sadly, as important as perspective-taking is to good leadership, being in a position of power decreases people’s understanding of others’ points of view. This suggests that you are overly eager to please and be liked. Because they answer two critical questions: “What are this person’s intentions toward me?” and “Is he or she capable of acting on those intentions?” Together, these assessments underlie our emotional and behavioral reactions to other people, groups, and even brands and companies. When standing, balance your weight primarily on one hip to avoid appearing rigid or tense. "The Benefit of Power Posing Before a High-Stakes Social Evaluation." Research from Harvard Business School’s Amy Cuddy and consultants Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger refutes that theory, arguing that leaders would do much better to begin with “love”—that is, to establish trust through warmth and understanding. 44.8k Followers, 1,627 Following, 3,960 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Amy Cuddy, PhD (@amycuddy) We noticed, however, that when she talked about where she grew up and what she learned about life from the tight-knit community in her neighborhood, her demeanor relaxed and she smiled broadly. Some situations take us down a notch while others build us up. Together, these assessments underlie our emotional and behavioral reactions to other people, groups, and even brands and companies. So leaders need to consciously and consistently make the effort to imagine walking in the shoes of the people they are leading. Strength or competence can be established by virtue of the position you hold, your reputation, and your actual performance. Women would be wise to take a lesson from this. Copyright © 2020 Harvard Business School Publishing. Prioritizing warmth helps you connect immediately with those around you, demonstrating that you hear them, understand them, and can be trusted by them. "Now there is established research showing that while it's true that facial expressions reflect how you feel, you can also 'fake it until you make it.' So which is better, being lovable or being strong? Amy Cuddy Speech 957 Words | 4 Pages. In their article, to be published in a forthcoming Psychological Science, Cuddy and coauthors Dana R. Carney and Andy J. Yap of Columbia University detail the results of an experiment in which forty-two male and female participants were randomly assigned to a high- or low-power pose group. You might even occasionally share a personal story—one that feels private but not inappropriate—in a confiding tone of voice to demonstrate that you’re being forthcoming and open. Standing tall is an especially good way to project strength because it doesn’t interfere with warmth in the way that other signals of strength—cutting gestures, a furrowed brow, an elevated chin—often do. "Many students believe that if they have a great idea, they should be able to magnetize their audience toward them because their audience will recognize the 'greatness' of that ideaâthat they'll get on board because the idea is so good," she continues. She continues to teach at Harvard Business School in executive education. https://www.bigspeak.com/speakers/amy-cuddyAmy Cuddy is a professor and researcher at Harvard Business School. Lean inward in a nonaggressive manner to signal interest and engagement. Whatever our personality, most of us experience varying degrees of feeling in charge. We feel compelled to demonstrate that we’re up to the job, by striving to present the most innovative ideas in meetings, being the first to tackle a challenge, and working the longest hours. Power comes from influence and influence is usually based on trust. No one was told what the study was about; instead, each participant believed it was related to the placement of ECG eleâ¦ Twitching, fidgeting, or other visual static sends the signal that you’re not in control. Look them in the eye and say, “I know everybody’s feeling a lot of uncertainty right now, and it’s unsettling.” People will respect you for addressing the elephant in the room, and will be more open to hearing what you have to say. Alan Sanfey, of course, and smiling makes us happy matters Citation,! 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