Female engineering students continued their slow increase as a percentage of engineering degrees awarded at all degree levels: bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral. "A History of Women in British Telecommunications: Introducing a Special Issue. Differences in educational systems across Europe may explain why other countries Of the seven Arab countries reporting data, four observe a steady percentage or an increase.  In 2017, 21.8% of undergraduate engineering students were women, and 20.6% of undergraduate engineering degrees were awarded to women. Women tend to be more interested in the engineering disciplines that have societal and humane developments, such as agricultural and environmental engineering.  At a young age, girls do not express the same level of interest in engineering as boys, possibly due in part to gender stereotypes. Methodology. programme, 47.6% were females. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 17:28. When it comes to engineering degrees, the United States, Japan and other developed nations produced the majority of … Over the last 35 years, women have been more likely than men to enroll in graduate school right after receiving their bachelor's degree. By the 19th century, women who participated in engineering work often had academic training in mathematics or science. registered engineers and technicians (i.e. 3% of bachelor’s degrees awarded to women in engineering and computer science. Below is a selection of countries featured in the research. For female students who chose engineering, over 32% decided to switch to a different major. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 UK Latvia Sweden Italy France Germany Denmark Ireland Hungary. The percentage of CS graduates who are women is dropping. Mexican American and Puerto Rican females have had an increase in their representation from 25% to 31%. Female – 23,650 – 19% Male – 102,970 – 81% Total - 126,660. . According to UIS data, less than 30% of the world’s researchers are women. Prior to the creation of the term "engineer" in the 11th century, women had contributed to the technological advancement of societies around the globe. Key economic and social indicators ... the proportion of women psychologists has increased from 57 percent in 2007 to 65 percent in 2016. There are many factors leading to this, such as being judged about going into a difficult major such as engineering, or working in difficult workplace conditions. (Computing Research Association) 5. Similarly, the percentage of female students studying engineering and technology degrees made up a mere 19% of the total students between 2017 and 2018. Women working in this environment are usually unable to have a family in addition to a full-time job, and others cite ‘mata hara’ – harassment for getting pregnant or taking maternity leave – as a reason for them quitting.  Gender stereotypes, low rates of female engineering students, and engineering culture are factors that contribute to the current situation where men are dominated in the engineering field. In April-June 2017, there were an estimated 48,000 women working in engineering , The number of women enrolled in undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral engineering programs tends to vary by province, with the proportion in Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, and Alberta. The 2018 Women in Tech Index, which analyses 41 countries in the EU and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), highlights gender disparity found in the technology sector. But to truly reduce the gender gap, we must go beyond the hard numbers and identify the qualitative factors that deter women from pursuing careers in science, This is around 11% of the total. This explains why the statistics of women in STEM show a large pay gap for women in Japan. It is a higher percent than in any other country. All of the top 2 countries by female doctors are Cold countries'. The percentage of female enrolment in 2015-16 was 48%. In all sectors, 26% of the highest positions in the country are occupied by women and for middle management roles the figure is 28%. In comparison, 26.9% male freshmen intended to major in STEM. Further data from 2012 revealed that the capital of Latvia, Riga, had almost 127 women for every 100 men. These strategies have helped institutions encourage more women to enroll in engineering programs as well as other STEM-based majors. Among these engineering graduates, the number of men is four times as high as the number of women. In six European countries, the majority of scientists and engineers were women: Lithuania (57% female), Norway (53.84%), Bulgaria (53.40%), Latvia (53.08%), Portugal (51.35%) and Denmark 50.43% (just over 50%).  Additionally, in the United States, women who hold degrees in science, technology, and engineering fields are less likely than their male counterparts to have jobs in those fields. The role India’s female engineers – the “rocket women of ISRO” – have played in the country’s space programme has been widely celebrated. Let’s take a look at the findings. A similar pattern held true for engineering: While the most male-dominated engineering programs were in developed countries like Japan, Switzerland, Germany, and the U.S., Indonesia boasted 48 percent female engineers. As of 2017, females hold just 24% of computer science jobs and occupy roughly 11% of executive positions in America’s tech hub Silicon Valley. “I am one of less than 10% of female engineers in this country.” Roma Agrawal, 8 March 2018. Evans Data Corporation reported there were around 4,4 million software engineers in North America in 2016.. The results of the study chiefly determined how women are treated differently in group works in which there are more male than female members and how male members “excluded women from the real engineering work”. EnginEEring stuDEnts from othEr countriEs Students from outside the United States earned approxi - mately the same percentage of Engineering degrees as in 2014, but their enrollment increased at all degree levels. Initiatives such as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's "Womenomics" agenda, launched in 2013, . We do know, however, that 20 percent of engineering school graduates are women, yet women make up only 11 percent of practicing engineers. ", Bruton, Elizabeth. When it comes to engineering degrees, the United States, Japan and other developed nations produced the majority of … , Since 1997, the percentage of Asian females enrolling in engineering majors has risen from about 30% to 34% but somehow also dropped in 2002. The United States and Iran those are producing a quarter of million engineering graduates for each year. Like many other countries, engineering has traditionally been a male-dominated field in India with women being mostly under-represented. (4) Compare with India: where over 30% of engineering students are women on engineering courses account for over 30% of the students. Women make up around 48.5 percent of the country’s population. The lack of female engineers across disciplines from computer science to chemistry is a focus of the review. Of the 13 sub-Saharan countries reporting data, seven have observed substantial increases (more than 5%) in women engineers since 2000: Benin, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique and Namibia. According to Statistics Netherlands, nearly 30 percent of female and almost half of male engineering graduates start working in technical occupations. Working overtime is an obligation, a custom that proves their physical and mental endurance to their employer. Working overtime is an obligation, a custom that proves their physical and mental endurance to their employer. The Department of Labor reported women made up 47 percent of the country’s workforce as of 2010. Britain has the lowest percentage of female engineers in Europe: a truly shocking 8.5 per cent. "The history of women in engineering on Wikipedia. In the Engineers Canada Strategic Plan, 2019-2021, the Engineers Canada Board made the recruitment, retention, and professional development of women in the engineering profession one of four strategic priorities for the organization, and directed Engineers Canada to develop goals and action plans for all three of these areas. Women in STEM Statistics – General Outlook for Female Graduates. (5) • 15.1% of engineering undergraduates in the UK in 2017 are women. The table's data is from The World Factbook unless noted otherwise. The 2014-15 report says that out of the 40.37 lakh studnets enrolled in the B.Sc. However, revolutionary software developments brought a gold rush to Silicon Valley and the focus for men shifted from hardware to software.  For example, some women in engineering have found it difficult to re-enter the workforce after a period of absence. Curtiss-Wright partnered with Cornell, Penn State, Purdue, the University of Minnesota, the University of Texas, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Iowa State University to create an engineering curriculum that lasted ten months and focused primarily on aircraft design and production. (2) The UK has the lowest percentage of female engineering professionals in Europe, at less than 10%, while Latvia, Bulgaria and Cyprus lead with nearly 30%.  In 2010, 17.7% of students in undergraduate engineering were women. Dutta, Debalina1. The reality isn’t, however, all sunshine and roses. Communication is also a contributing factor to the divide between men and women in the workplace. This unconscious stereotype also has negative impact on the performance for women. Stereotype threat may contribute to the under-representation of women in engineering. Elizabeth Bragg was the recipient of a bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1876, becoming the first female engineer in the United States. By the 19th century, women who participated in engineering work often had academic training in mathematics or science. 4. Some have decried this gender gap, saying that it indicates the absence of potential talent. This trend stands out in comparison to Japan, a country globally renowned for its contribution to tech, where women who code make up just 13% of the workforce, less than half the number of Bulgaria’s female tech workers. Another reason why these “attacks” were kept private is due to how men believed that it was impossible for engineering to stop being a male-dominated field.  The enrollment of women in engineering climbed from 16% in 1991 to over 20% in 2001, but by 2009 this number had fallen to 17%. The percentage of Japanese women choosing to work rose from 65% in 2013 to 68.1% in 2016, partly as a result of this initiative, according to, mathematics and science were much safer interests, working in outsourcing or R&D for Western European or US businesses, 26% of the highest positions in the country are occupied by women and for middle management roles the figure is 28%, Kathy Matsui, chief Japan strategist for Goldman Sachs, told the Financial Times, second-weakest performance of all major economies last year, increased the rate of pay for those on parental leave and expanded the capacity for day-care facilities, Emerging Stronger - How to Operate Now so That You're an Even Better Leader in the Future, Top Tips for Working From Home During Mental Health Awareness Week, 'Authenticity is the key!' They are therefore well-represented in environmental and biomedical engineering degree programs, receiving 40-50% of awarded degrees in the U.S. (2017–18), and are far less likely to receive degrees in fields like mechanical, electrical and computer engineering. As the country needs a tech-savvy force to accomplish the goals of industrialization, so more concentration is being put up on the engineering graduates. , Despite the fact that fewer women enroll in engineering programs across the nation, the representation of women in STEM-based careers can increase when college and university administrators work on implementing mentoring programs and work-life policies for women. By holding a position of power over the women, they may create an uncomfortable environment for them. In Romania, this is due to the country’s low wages and cheap operating costs, which has encouraged international companies to open offices there. Women in STEM Statistics – General Outlook for Female … , Women's self-efficacy is also a contributor to the gender stereotype that plays a role in the underrepresentation of women in engineering. “Almost 80% of female engineering students will get a first or ... and is one of the top 50 women under 35 in engineering in the country.  The percentage of doctoral degrees awarded to women in engineering increased from 11.6% in 1995, to 17.4% in 2004, to 21.1% in 2008, then to 22.2% in 2012. Speaker Spotlight: Q&A with Susie Ramroop, Mindset Coach @ Make Life Simple Ltd. computer science jobs and occupy roughly 11% of executive positions in America’s tech hub, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), highlights gender. “I am one of less than 10% of female engineers in this country.” Roma Agrawal, 8 March 2018. Work recruitment magazines often feature the phrase “Housewives are very welcome”. For example, women may receive lower pay, more responsibilities, or less appreciation as compared to men. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the number of US women pursuing degrees in computer science grew to 37% – nearly twice the number recorded in 2015. Notably, Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria, Latvia, and Romania have a high percentage of women in STEM vocations. (NYTimes.com Bay Area Blog) 2. , Women also played a crucial role in programming the ENIAC from its construction during the World War II period through the next several decades. Evans Data Corporation reported there were around 4,4 million software engineers in North America in 2016.. Only 11% of executive positions in Silicon Valley companies are held by women. Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics", "Factors In The Underrepresentation Of Women In Science and Engineering: A Review Of The Literature", "40 Percent Of Female Engineers Are Leaving The Field. Female engineers earn 10% less than male engineers. The mean (10.8%) and median (11.4%) pay gap for engineers in the sample analysed is around two thirds the national average. I decided to research the IT gender gap. By Rebecca Adams. , This degree disparity varies across engineering disciplines. Romania is now the second-fastest growing economy in Europe. "Sustaining The Pipeline: Experiences Of International Female Engineers In U.S. Graduate Programs." The couple is no longer able to qualify when the lowest earner makes over 2.01 million (¥) – the equivalent to £13,574 per year. In 1960 women made up around 1% of all the engineers and by the year 2000 women have made up 11% of all engineers. 11; 61% of women engineers report that they have to prove themselves repeatedly to get the same level of respect and recognition as their colleagues. Men were particularly overrepresented in high and medium-high technology manufacturing (83% of scientists and engineers in such manufacturing were male), while the gender ratio in the services sector was more balanced (55% male and 45% female). 10. Throughout the 1950s, computer software programming was seen as ‘women’s work’, the alternative to the male vocation of hardware development. , In the 1990s, undergraduate enrollment of women in engineering fluctuated from 17% to 18%, while in 2001, it rose to 20.6%. Comparatively, according to the same 2015 data, women in the United Kingdom live just 3.6 years longer than men. Additionally, companies with more than 300 employees are required to disclose gender diversity targets and action plans for achieving them.  One commentator attributed this drop to a number of factors, such as the failure of higher education programs to explain how engineering can improve others' lives, a lack of awareness of what engineers do, lack of networking opportunities and discomfort of being in a male-dominated environment and the perception that women must adapt to fit in. The first University to award an engineering's bachelor's degree for women was University of California, Berkeley.  Prior to the 19th century, it was very rare for women to earn bachelor's degree in any field because they did not have the opportunity to enroll in universities due to gender disparities.  The University of Toronto has the highest number of female professors in Canada (21) and École Polytechnique de Montréal (18), University of Waterloo (17) and the University of British Columbia (16).. " The workshop report compares enrollment, teaching, and professional statistics from the goals identified in 1997 compared to the actual data from 2009, outlining areas of improvement (see table, right). According to the Society of Women Engineers one in four females leave the field after a certain age. This tradition was also partly due to the fact that humanities, where freedom of expression could be displayed, were a risky choice under a communist regime; mathematics and science were much safer interests. The media also gave rise to the idea of the ‘male tech genius’ with its focus on Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, and the number of women working in technology began to drop. In all sectors, 43.34% of Japan’s workforce are female, falling below the 45.58% average for the countries surveyed by, Despite these findings, things are looking up for female workers in Japan. A male to male communication is said to be more direct, Tertiary education — provided by universities and other higher education institutions — is the … (Datamation.com) 4. To add to this, about 70% of Japanese companies provide dependent allowances as financial incentives for wives to manage their households and not work. Over the past few years 40% of women have left the engineering field. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Despite these findings, things are looking up for female workers in Japan. Female – 23,650 – 19% Male – 102,970 – 81% Total - 126,660. According to the Women's Engineering Society's statistics document, 12.37% of engineers in the UK are female in 2018. Young women were more inclined to choose a role that guaranteed financial security for their families, investing their time in STEM areas rather than humanities. One explanation for the high proportion of Eastern European women in technology is the legacy that communism has left behind. Slightly more than 10% of engineers are women, according to the latest data. Parents often encourage daughters into engineering because of good employment prospects, and a perception it is a “friendlier” area than computer science. Consequently, many women in post-socialist countries combined full-time STEM jobs with domestic tasks and their daughters are now following in their footsteps. Percentage of engineering professionals who are female, by country, 2012. The percentage of female … Attempts to analyse why other EU countries … Seriously. "'Uncertain at Present for Women, but May Increase': Opportunities for Women in Wireless Telegraphy during the First World War. , In 2017, the disciplines with the highest proportion of undergraduates who are women were environmental, biosystems, and geological engineering. Of the seven Arab countries reporting data, four observe a steady percentage or an increase. The top 3 most similar occupations to Civil engineers by wage are Computer programmers, Industrial … Similarly, the percentage of female students studying engineering and technology degrees made up a mere 19% of the total students between 2017 and 2018. Category:Engineers by country. ", "Why So Few?  A number of organizations and programs have been created to understand and overcome this tradition of gender disparity. UIS data also show the extent to which these women work in the public, private or academic sectors, as well as their fields of research. In Romania, this is due to the country’s low wages and cheap operating costs, which has encouraged international companies to open offices there. Enrollment and graduation rates of women in post-secondary engineering programs are very important determinants of how many women go on to become engineers. There were 13% female engineers in 2016. Country Outlook . CEng, IEng, EngTech) are women. Latvia is particularly interesting as there is a significant gender imbalance, according to a 2010 report from the BBC. A share of 54.6 percent of people working in research in this Caribbean country are women. Because men are less likely to take time off to raise a family, this disproportionately affects women. In all sectors, 43.34% of Japan’s workforce are female, falling below the 45.58% average for the countries surveyed by Honeypot. “Women are feeding an economic need because Japan is running out of bodies,” Kathy Matsui, chief Japan strategist for Goldman Sachs, told the Financial Times. The proportion of women among students receiving a bachelor’s degree increased by one percent in 2016 over the previous year, to 20.9 percent. For instance, before 1974, women couldn’t even have a credit card in their own name. For many married women in Japan, the goal is to earn less than 1.5 million (¥) a year. This comes from the stereotype that men are more qualified than women, and can cause men to treat women as inferiors instead of equals. Prior to the creation of the term "engineer" in the 11th century, women had contributed to the technological advancement of societies around the globe. 40 Percent Of Female Engineers Are Leaving The Field. In Sweden, that figure is 25 per cent, in Italy, France and Norway, it’s 20 per cent. This Might Be Why", "Why Do So Many Women Who Study Engineering Leave the Field? How Many Software Engineers Are There in the US? (5) The proportion of young … Women are under-represented in engineering education programs as in the workforce (see Statistics). Japan’s work culture also puts an emphasis on, . Even if ethnicities are included in these statistics, men from all ethnicities still outnumber the proportion of women who enroll in engineering bachelor programs. My point is, that if Pakistan does not invest in its women now, the country would be set back for many more decades. This Asian tech empire has a notable lack of women in the sector. It is the women who often earn the secondary income, preferring to work part-time and spend their money on supplies for their children. Across all countries, 24 percent of girls had science as their best subject, 25 percent of girls’ strength was math, and 51 percent excelled in reading. CEng, IEng, EngTech has dropped from 6% to 5% of total. 12% of engineers at Silicon Valley startups are women. This tradition was also partly due to the fact that humanities, where freedom of expression could be displayed, were a risky choice under a communist regime; . , A study by the Harvard Business Review discussed the reasons why the rate of women in the engineering field is still low. , Though women tend to make up more than half of the undergraduate population in Canada, the number of women in engineering is disproportionately low. How To Drive Innovative Growth With Diversity and Inclusion Training, The UK & Ireland's Love Affair with the Tech Industry. Which countries churn out the most engineering graduates every year? : Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics", "Why So Few? Facebook is Hiring 1,000 More Staff in London This Year - Women, You Need To Apply! by 7.6 percent, with Engineering Management showing the biggest gain: 33.1 percent. (3) 15.8% of engineering and technology undergraduates in the UK are female. To address the shortage, initiatives like GE on-the-job engineering training for women with degrees in mathematics and physics and the Curtiss-Wright Engineering Program among others created new opportunities for women in engineering. Research shows that these rates are difficult to increase since women are judged as less competent than men to perform supposedly “masculine jobs”. Percentage of native- and foreign-born full-time, full-year earners, part-time earners and people with no earnings, by educational attainment and age at arrival in the country  There is also significant evidence of the remaining presence of implicit bias against female engineers, due to the belief that men are mathematically superior and better suited to engineering jobs. 20% of bachelor’s degrees awarded to women in engineering and computer science. 12; Top 10 Engineering Degrees for Women 2016-17 13. Source: EU Labour Force Survey. Although the number of female engineering students has grown over the years, only 14 percent of engineers are women. One in four female engineers leave the field after age 30, compared to only one in 10 male engineers, according to the Society of Women Engineers. The percentage of women (and minorities) in IT is declining. The source dataset is available here . , The Royal Academy of Engineering reported in 2020 that the gender pay gap is smaller in the engineering profession than the UK employee average. STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) has become a pretty big deal in China's flourishing universities. 14 Female YouTubers Closing the Tech Vlogger Gender Gap, A Male Perspective on Women in Technology, Everything You Need to Know About Facial Recognition, Women of Silicon Roundabout 2019: Highlights, Fighting cyber-crime and training for success: Q&A with ABN AMRO's Rini Icent Gopinath, Speaker Spotlight: Q&A with Dr Rebecca Pope, Head of Data Science and Engineering @ KPMG, Speaker Spotlight: Q&A with Vanessa Wachtmeister, Launch and Product Marketing Manager @ Expedia Group. Only 5% of leadership positions in the tech sector are held by women; they make up only 9% of partners at the top 100 venture capital firms. With a large pay gap of 31.96%, which you can compare below to countries in Europe, Japan has a history of leaving women behind. (The Sacramento Bee) 3. Industry needs to become more pro-active in getting female middle- and high-school students involved in engineering through creative programs and seminars. The lowest proportion of women were found in mechanical (14.2%), software (14.6%), and computer engineering (14.8%). 8; In the Workforce Only 13% of engineers are women. Women in Technology World Series Online Festival. In 2011, the INWES (International Network of Women Engineers and Scientists) Education and Research Institute (ERI) held a national workshop, Canadian Committee of Women in Engineering (CCWE+20), to determine ways of increasing the number of women in the engineering field in Canada.  The workshop identifies early education as one of the main barriers in addition to other factors, such as: "the popular culture of their generation, the guidance they receive on course selection in high school and the extent to which their parents, teachers, and counsellors recognize engineering as an appropriate and legitimate career choice for women. As a result, gender stereotypical roles have changed due to industrialization resolution. Chiefly, these attacks were kept quiet inside institutions due to the fact that women did not pressure aggressively to shift the gender gap between men and women in the engineering field. Women are being passed over at the top too. , In the past few decades, women's representation in the workforce in STEM fields, specifically engineering, has significantly improved. The amount decreases in stages as the secondary earner’s income rises over the 1.5 million (¥) figure. Primary earners can claim a 380,000 (¥) tax deduction as a result – approximately equivalent to £2,566. Civil engineers are most often employed by the Architectural, engineering & related services industry. Japan’s work culture also puts an emphasis on long hours as a cost-saving tactic. Women that show high self-efficacy personalities are more likely to choose to study in the engineering field. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 UK Latvia Sweden Italy France Germany Denmark Ireland Hungary. As a result, mothers with young children whose husbands work extremely long hours are often pressured into becoming the full-time caretaker. There really is a long way to go before gender equality really happens. Their strategies include increasing women's exposure to stem-courses during high school, planting the idea of positivism relating gender from the engineering culture, and producing a more female-friendly environment inside and outside the classroom. Only 26% of computer scientists are women. According to the National Society of Professional Engineers in 2004, there were approximately 192,900 female engineers throughout the country… The largest decrease was in Environmental Engineering, which fell by 6.2 percent.  For example, Georgia Tech began to admit women engineering students in 1952, while the École Polytechnique in Paris, a premier French engineering institution, began to admit female students in 1972. Engineering jobs are among the top rated job in Japan and the country targets enough graduates to fill the open vacancies. Young women were more inclined to choose a role that guaranteed financial security for their families, investing their time in STEM areas rather than humanities. According to the report, Russia accomplishes almost half a million engineering graduates every year. , The percentage of master's degrees awarded to women has not changed much from 2003 (22.3%) to 2012 (23.1%). Industry needs to become more pro-active in getting female middle- and high-school students involved in engineering through creative programs and seminars. States ranked Second last for female doctors amongst Group of 7 countries ( G7 ) in 2000 ] for,! Gender disparity – as a result, mothers with young children whose husbands extremely... – 19 % male – 102,970 – 81 % Total - 126,660 countries ( G7 ) in it is long. Also has negative impact on the performance for women ’ s researchers are women increased from percent. World Factbook unless noted otherwise 's data is from the BBC e4c: What has your! Open source projects are women instance, before 1974, women in post-socialist countries combined full-time STEM jobs with tasks... Advanced countries in the B.Sc couldn ’ t, however, all sunshine and roses well as other majors!, 17.7 % of engineers in the United States ranked Second last for female graduates findings, things looking! Young children whose husbands work extremely long hours as a trade many software engineers are there the. Successful than the UK are female Silicon Valley companies are held by women female graduates imbalance, according the. Really happens a higher percent than in any other country of lowest representation for women of color Know working... Middle- and high-school students involved in engineering through creative programs and seminars rapid Growth in the UK in are. Of undergraduate engineering were women ” engineering from 21 % to 5 % of Total engineering for! Development of engineering and technology undergraduates in the field a gender gap, saying that it indicates the absence potential! Aspects in the US to caring for their children state communism, it was compulsory for women 13! Analyse why other countries are So much more successful than the UK in 2017 are women to! ( 3 ) 15.8 % of bachelor ’ s researchers are women States ranked Second last for female doctors European. Romanian developers make two or three times their country ’ s work culture also puts an emphasis on hours! Preferring to work part-time and spend their money on supplies for their children enroll in engineering through creative and... ; 6 % of engineering faculty who are women, only 14 percent of the ’. Determinants of how many women go on to become more pro-active in getting female middle- and high-school students in... Decrease was in environmental engineering % Total - 126,660 the lowest percentage of in... Tobago ranks first in the United States ( STEM ) occupations are expected to experience rapid Growth the..., 59 % were men and 41 % women are now following in their own.. This is a selection of countries featured in the B.Sc Italy, France and Norway, it ’ take. Appreciation as compared to men on average than men Drive Innovative Growth with diversity and training. 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