We use the protection motivation theory (PMT; Rogers, 1983) to investigate household-level decision-making in adopting mitigation measures against flood threats. The factors are categorized as predisposing, enabling or reinforcing. Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions SarahMilne1*, Sheina Orbell2and Paschal Sheeran3 1University of Bath, UK 2University of Essex, UK 3University of Shef” eld, UK Objective. Both the perceived severity of the threat and the individual's perceived vulnerability to the threat are seen to inhibit maladaptive responses. However Dr. Rogers would later expand on the theory in 1983 where he extended the theory to a more general theory of persuasive communication. One type of theory is often called the classical, or descriptive, model (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2004) and the most referred to is Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory (Rogers 1995). The PM model is superior to the curvilinear approach because it provides a clearer In an extension of the fear-drive model, Janis (1967) proposed that if a persuasive communication successfully arouses fear, usually through emphasizing the severity of a threat and the likelihood of its occurrence, individuals will be motivated to reduce this unpleasant emotional state. The key ‘proceed’ stages are implementation and evaluation of the effect the intervention had on behaviour change, and on predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A Revised theory of protection motivation. Health promotion and disease prevention research has attempted to determine methods to persuade people to adopt healthy behaviors. Rogers’s (1975, 1983) protection motivation theory (PMT) is one of the mostly applied theories in behavioral information systems (IS) security research, a key … Protection motivation theory is a theory that was originally created to help clarify fear appeals. The innovation-decision process is derived from Rogers' theory and consists of five stages that potential adopters pass through as they decide to adopt an innovation. Both the belief that the recommended action will be effective in reducing the danger (i.e., response efficacy) and the belief that one is capable of performing the recommended action (i.e., self-efficacy) are likely to increase the probability of an adaptive response, although various response costs (e.g., financial cost) associated with performing an adaptive response will serve to inhibit such a response. Other examples are listed in the Table 8-1. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Social cognitive theory, originally developed by Bandura in the early 1960s and refined during the next several decades, refers to the observation that an individual acquires much of his or her behavior by observing and imitating others within a social context. The information is then used to tailor interventions to overcome identified barriers or enhance the supporters. Most of the theories described above focus on individuals, but organizational factors play an important role in change processes as well. Thus, in the presence of senior management support of evidence-based practice, together with the development of local practice guidelines, individual clinicians on an inpatient service can serve as role models by using evidence-based recommendations and creating a culture of “evidence users.”47 According to Bandura, there are three general factors to consider when changing behavior within an organization: (1) situational or environmental factors (goal-oriented, socially oriented, and task or structural cues) that prompt the use of evidence-based recommendations, (2) personal factors (attitudes, personality characteristics, and other cognitive factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of compliance with guideline recommendations), and (3) consequences or behavioral factors (interpersonal and organizational responses to a person's behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of the behavior's recurrence). Serve as a single point of contact between OHA and CCOs, Identify and facilitate resolution on CCO questions and issues with OHA, Identify for OHA opportunities and obstacles related to system and process improvements for the agency, Support innovation within CCOs, doing this work at the direction of the CCO, Observe meetings of the Community Advisory Councils (CACs) and provide support as needed or requested, Support the activities of the Transformation Center, Collaborate with the other IAs, including participating in a peer-learning collaborative with them to discuss ideas, projects, and creative innovation planned or undertaken by their assigned CCO(s), Help build and participate in learning collaboratives with other IAs, CCOs, community stakeholders, and/or OHA. In the new world of health system transformation, the success of the state reform depended upon the success of the CCOs. Rewards refer to the positive aspects of starting or continuing the unhealthy behavior. The coping appraisal consists of the response efficacy, self-efficacy, and the response costs. It is argued that various environmental (e.g., fear appeals) and intrapersonal (e.g., personality variables) sources of information can initiate two appraisal processes: threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The threat appraisal process consists of both the severity and vulnerability of the situation. Implementation research has been defined as the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings for the purpose of improving the quality of care. It includes the study of factors that influence the behaviour of health care professionals and organizations, and the interventions that enable them to use research findings more effectively. In J. Cacioppo & R. Petty (Eds. Leventhal (1970) made a similar distinction between adaptive and maladaptive reactions in the parallel response model which differentiates between two independent control processes that are initiated by a fear appeal. The coping appraisal consists of both efficacy and self-efficacy. Protecting children from myopia: A PMT perspective for improving health marketing communications. Such perceptions are complex and involve whether there is a perceived benefit related to the innovation; whether it is compatible with the culture, beliefs, and values of the organization; the complexity of the innovation; its trialability (whether an adopter can develop a test of change); and its observability (the ease with which potential adopters can see others try the change first).64 The five adopter categories identified by Rogers, based on the statistical properties of the diffusion curve (number of standard deviations from the mean time to adoption), are innovators, early adopters, early majority adopters, late majority adopters, and laggards.63,64 Such categories are the basis for the design and implementation of intervention strategies targeted at particular groups of individuals. Given the initial resistance to the Center, the IAs served as boots-on-the-ground staff who could forge stronger relationships with the CCOs. Under such conditions the cognitive responses that promote adaptive reactions (e.g., following behavioral advice) outweigh those that promote maladaptive reactions (e.g., denial). The amount of coping ability that one experiences is the combination of response efficacy and self-efficacy, minus the response costs. Journal of Psychology 91, 93-114. This article reports the first meta‐analysis of the literature on protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1975, 1983; Rogers & Prentice‐Dunn, 1997), a model of disease prevention and health promotion that has generated research for over two decades. Coping appraisal, which is similar to Lazarus and Launier's (1978) secondary appraisal, focuses on one's ability to cope with the threat and the factors that may increase or decrease the probability of an adaptive response. In the current study, we developed and assessed a measurement scale for adolescent tobacco research in China based on Protection Motivation Theory [1–4,6]. This study developed psychometric scales to measure the main components of Rogers' (1983) Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) along with a stage of change measure to examine exercise behavior towards the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). Protection Motivation Theory ( Rogers , 1983 ) The protection motivation theory was originally developed to explain how people respond to fear-arousing health problems. A protection motivation might be an intention to adopt or adhere to a fitness program. Most such models are based on social cognitive theories. Each of these communication variables in … Social marketing provides a framework for identifying factors that drive change. The aim of diffusion in evidence-based practice is to maximize the exposure and reach of innovations, strategies, or programs for which there is already established evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. This is consistent with Rogers’ observation in his 1983 revision that other factors could influence protection motivation and coping behaviors of individuals and groups. This requires that a guideline move through five recognized stages: development, dissemination, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (see Table 8-1 for details). According to social cognitive theory, there exists a dynamic among a person's behavior, a person's thoughts, and the environment in which these occur. Rogers (1975, 1983, 1985) developed protection motivation theory (PMT) which expanded the HBM to include additional factors. Protection motivation, which is usually measured by behavioral intentions, is seen to arouse, direct, and sustain protective behavior. Components of the PMT. A long-standing criticism of the state agency was that staff did not understand what it was like for the Medicaid health plans nor their providers. In J. Cacioppo & R. Petty (Eds. (2015), returned to use of the full nomology and measurement of fear in an organizational security context with two studies. Protection motivation theory was founded by R.W. Aside from personal physical health research, the application of protection motivation theory has extended to other areas. Because they spent their time out in the community with CCO leaders, staff, and providers, the IAs had a better understanding of the CCOs’ needs and perspectives than agency staff in the state capital. A revision of protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) has included a broader statement about the sources of information initiating the coping process, a fuller exposition of the modes of coping, and additional cognitive mediating processes. The theory was originally based on the work of Richard Lazaruswho spent much of his time researching how people behave and cope during stressful situations. For example, Boer (2005) studied on intention of condom use to prevent from getting AIDS guided by protection motivation theory. Cabana and coworkers described the process of behavior change related to clinical practice guidelines within the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory.12 According to them, physicians must modify their knowledge of the guideline recommendations, accept them, and finally change their behavior to reflect them. Once an Executive Director was hired, the first order of business for the new Transformation Center was to fill the “Innovator Agent (IA)” positions. Protection motivation theory ( Rogers, 1983) was originally developed as a framework for understanding the effectiveness of health-related persuasive communications, although more recently it has also been used to predict health protective behavior. Threat appraisal, which is similar to Lazarus and Launier's (1978) primary appraisal, focuses on the source of the threat and the factors that may increase or decrease the probability of the maladaptive response. Health-related behaviours are a product of five components: Coping Appraisal. In one study, almost 75% of children admitted to a general inpatient service received evidence-based care for at least one of the interventions addressing the initial diagnosis (the other 25% were admitted for observation).19 However, there remains much variation in the care provided and in the application of best evidence in pediatric inpatient settings.12,22,23. Consistent with the empirical findings, the revised Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1983) also proposed that emotional response was not part of severity and that emotional arousal played an indirect role in protection motivation through its effect on cognitive representations (perceptions of … Background: Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat.  While Richard Lazarus came up with many of the fundamental ideas used in the protection motivation theory, Rogers was the first to apply the terminology when discussing fear appeals. Social marketing has focused largely on bringing about health behaviour change at a community level, but it has also been used as the basis for other quality improvement strategies, for example academic detailing or outreach visits, discussed later in this chapter. 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