They point to Black African slaves who held Islamic beliefs until as late as the early part of the twentieth century. : Would you say this effect is positive or negative or both? The information age has created a new communication regime enhancing a mutual process of empowerment among the ranks of Muslims through out the world. Many Muslims are not Arabs, and conversely, many Arabs are not Muslim, yet the categories persistently and incorrectly overlap in Western discourse. At worst, Islam’s defensiveness amounts to what has been described as “a holding operation against modernity” (Sivan, 1985, p. 3). Exhibitions and … Broadcast systems in Arab countries have operated without general agreement about a philosophy arising from pan-Arabic or pan-Islamic, or even national, goals (Boyd, 1982). “Eclipse of Reason in the Muslim World,”Journal of International Affairs 47 (1), 1993, pp. - Concessions given to non-Muslims and the growing influence of Jews and Christians in the Islamic world. Capella Palatina in Palermo, Sicily is one of so many Christian buildings with an Islamic influence. Islam emerged in the 7th century C.E. Boyd, D.A. : What do you have to say about the effects of western entertainment? Mission to America: Five Islamic Sectarian Communities in North America, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. The development of new electronic media have made global pathways even more feasible for the Islamic lifeworld, opening the realization to many adherents that Islam can maintain its spiritual center and still extend its geographic reach. A written account of his religious conversion outlines his emerging awareness of the incompatibility of his religious convictions with Western cultural identity: I wanted to be a big star. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. The Islamic world consists of diverse ethnic, cultural, and geographic populations, and faces the challenge of uniting diverse national cultures. Haddad, Y.Y. Intercultural Communication Theory, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995, pp. CAIR has organized twenty local chapters in major American and Canadian cities to train volunteers as monitors of local media programs and to report ethnic-religious slurs. Women’s Committee, Muslim Students’ Association of the United States and Canada. A small numberof Christian scholars, such as Ramón Martí andRamón Llull, knew Arabic themselves and drew on Arabic sourceswhen composing Latin works. 267–280. The introduction of Arabsat has changed the landscape of Arab and Islamic communication. Be authoritative. Arabic Philosophy was known in the Latin West through translations,and, to a small degree, through personal contacts between Christiansand Muslims, as in the case of Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who wasdirectly acquainted with a number of Muslim scholars. Arabsat has a dual role to play in the communication processes inside and outside the Arab World. Faragallah, N.H., Schumm, W.R. and Webb, F.J. “Acculturation of Arab-American Immigrants: An Exploratory Study,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies, (Autumn), 28, 3, 1997, pp. The arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures. Kim, Y.Y. Islamic art covers a wide … Upon embracing an Islamic worldview, Cat Stevens/ Yusuf Islam sold his musical instruments and avoided public performances. I have been asked on several occasions to put together a list of resources on Islam’s influence on the Western world from articles and books that I have read. Islam, Y. All those things I saw in the films and on the media took hold of me, and perhaps I thought this was my God. No longer satisfied to be strangers in a strange land, some Muslims are beginning to claim a kind of cultural ownership in America. : What other types of negative influences are there? Hoogvelt, A. M. M. Globalization and the Postcolonial World: The New Political Economy of Development. Now my examples were the pop stars. During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Al-Andalus, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. Missing in the dialogue over accommodation of Islamic values in Western culture, however, are the voices of young Muslims who find new ways to invent religious traditions in a modern milieu. If possible have the letter in the hands of an editor on the same day in which the negative coverage appears. Hwang, B.. and He, Z. Striving Together: AWay Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations. Al-Disuqi, R. “Influencing Decisions on Palestine: Muslim Image in Contemporary American Fiction,” The Muslim World League Journal, 21, June 1994, pp. Even though Muslims embrace different religious traditions (i.e., Sunni and Shi’ite) within the broader Muslim community (umma), they share, to a significant extent, a common textual language (i.e., Arabic), and common religious beliefs based on the Koran with their basic duties expressed in the five pillars of Islam: profession of faith, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage. American movies that Muslims interpreted as particularly offensive were Arnold Schwartzenegger’s True Lies; 20th Century Fox’s The Siege; Hanna-Barbera’s Arabian Nights; Disney’s Aladdin; and MGM’s movie and video Not Without My Daughter. Islam’s relationship with the West, though it goes far into antiquity, has been overburdened with rivalries and marred by conflicts. Yet, recent Islamic migrants to Western nations face the dilemma of finding their authentic voice in popular Western culture, balanced against their fears of cultural assimilation and loss of identity. The development of electronic networks and individualized media has made new cultural pathways possible for enclave Muslims. There is a growing Islamic presence in the United States, although it is concentrated primarily in a dozen major urban centers (El-Badry, 1994). Islam offers a totalized worldview encompassing all spheres of community intercourse: political, economic, social, etc. The dynamics of enclave formation leads to a discourse of constraint and empowerment as an existential strategy to combat U.S. media offenses even while it tends to reinforce the marginalization of the Arab-Islamic voice in American culture. Likewise, we would like to remind that this recognition already took place in the Recommendation 1162 on “The Contribution of the Islamic Civilization to the European Culture”, issued by the Parliamentary Assembly of the European Council in September 19th, 1991. Influences of Islam and Christianity. Unpublished dissertation. 163–194. To the degree Islamic leaders are committed to globalization, it is clear that they are fearful and apprehensive about the Western colonization of their life world, in Habermas’ terms. Navigating the cultural conflicts between Islam and the West is not a trivial challenge given sharply contrasting worldviews; the two domains of knowledge are poorly matched. Enjoy. Muslim adherents disagree about the power of Western values to secularize Islamic culture. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, Sage Publications. Growing more astute to political action, Arab and Islamic action groups now address the imbalances in the negative images that have been used in media programming for at least two decades (Al-Disuqi, 1994; Ghareeb, 1983; Kamalipour, 1995). So it happens that through these processes of communication and interaction, group formation and mutual solidarity (i.e., “cultural enclaves”) are formed (Gallab, 1997). In its response to the movie The Siege, CAIR distributed hundreds of “community response kits” to challenge the unfair portrayal of negative Arab stereotypes. I started making songs. In the short term, whether Muslims find a voice in Western culture depends on the success they achieve in developing strategies to blend two radically different “cultural ecologies” (Mowlana, 1993). Some Islamic intellectuals are ambivalent, too, about the desirability of a “public sphere” for common discourse, and the role of democracy from which Western societies derive their base for rationalized public action. The occupants of these areas had been nomadic tribes for a very long time. 32–36. Simultaneously, the West has been reluctant to embrace Muslims at or near the “cultural center.” Those who distrust Islam’s collective motives point to the uneven treatment of outsiders (dhimmi) in mixed populations where Islam has been dominant (Ye’or, 1985). Islamic influences on Western art refers to the influence of Islamic art, the artistic production in the Islamic world from the 8th to the 19th century, on Christian art. “Toward a Reconciliation of Assimilation and Pluralism: The Interplay of Acculturation and Ethnic Retention,” International Migration Review, 31, 4, 1997, pp. Sivan, E. Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. The West isolates the spheres of knowledge and action and enshrines the individual. Hussain, M. “Islamization of Communication Theory,” Media Asia 13(1), 1986, pp. One of the famous “cross-over” Islamic personalities recognized by both popular Western culture and traditional Islam is former singer-songwriter “Cat” Stevens, who is a respected leader in Britain’s Islamic community. “Arabs in America: A Historical Overview,” S. Abraham and N. Abraham (Eds.). Legal strictures against the study of philosophy were more effective there than in the East. The Western secular model privileges a rational, reasoning mind in the pursuit of individual and collective fulfillment; and Islam’s model emphasizes justice and tradition as the basis of a legitimate community and family life. He exerted an enormous influence on Christian and Jewish thought, primarily as a commentator on Aristotle, and also as an … In the West, whoever wishes to embrace a religion, and make it his only way of life, is deemed a fanatic. Mixed-gender activities, such as dating, dancing, and swimming, are regarded as sexually permissive. - Western influence - The poor financial administration of the state in the Ottoman Empire - The establishment of European banks in the Islamic state. The reason, being increased number of English medium schools in our society and the excessive emailing and messaging amongst the youth Surprisingly the influence is … 1437 Words 6 Pages. Sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1995. Among the advocacy groups organized to protest negative stereotyping in media are the American-Arab Affairs Council, American Arab Anti-discrimination Committee, and the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). “How I Came to Islam.” (http://catstevens.com/articles/convert.html), 1999. The Global Communication in Transition: The End of Diversity? : What particular areas of the Muslim culture do you think have been negatively affected? Our mother tongue Urdu is being replaced by English as the more common language used in the conversations. Furthermore, the two civilizations had regular relationships through diplomacy and trade that facilitated cultural exchanges. NOTES Boorstin, D.J. 1. More recently, Egypt’s Sunni leader or Mufti, Nasr Fareed Wasil, affirmed that Islam should not be reticent in developing its case for globalization. During this period, the frontier between Christendomand the Islamic world varied a lot resulting in some cases in exchanges of populations and of corresponding art practices and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992. Rushdie’s offense to Islam arose from the unitary allegiance of traditional Moslems to their family and community; and, in turn, the defense of Rushdie’s artistic freedom by Western literati was rooted in the liberal values of freedom and self-expression (Palmer and Gallab, 1993). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. More abstractly, Muslim outrage over negative images can be traced historically to prohibitions in early Islam against graphic images of all types. 2. Conference on Media-Religion-Culture, University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1993. Lebor, A. One of the first in a series of Muslim-friendly productions is the children’s cartoon Salam’s Journey, a forty-minute, U.S.- produced, animated movie created by Hollywood-trained artists and producers. Schimmel A. Deciphering the signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. One factor that contributes to this diversity is the absence of a cultural leader or spokesperson, one clearly identified as a defender of Islamic values and worldview in the mainstream media. Muslims are critical of Western media because of their invasiveness. At the close of the twentieth century, there were approximately thirty-five million Muslims in Europe and North America, with about 1,250 mosques and Islamic centers in the United States. The Muslims of America. Islam - Islam - The Western philosophers: Andalusia (in Spain) and western North Africa contributed little of substance to Islamic theology and philosophy until the 12th century. Unpublished dissertation. Find out more and book tickets. 61–79. At the beginning of this period, the European presence in the Islamic world was largely based on trade. The Creators. However due to western influence, our Muslim brothers and sisters, especially the youth, are participating in such activities. Vast distances, language diversity, and lack of central planning inhibited broadcasting from achieving its potential in the Middle East. Muslim societies are more humane than portrayed in the West, while Western societies often fail to live up to their liberal mythology. Trump is falling behind in the count — and in the courts. They seek to know how is it possible to move toward the center of Western culture without compromising deeply-held religious beliefs and traditions. Even though most American holidays, such as Christmas and Easter, have essentially been secularized, they are “one more element in the mass culture which each year enables manufacturers and merchants to take in millions of dollars through an elaborate system of gift exchange” (p. 117). One solution to this dilemma is for Muslims to further the processes of enclave building. Since the attacks on 9/11, Americans have passed judgement on the Islamic culture as a violent religion. The Muslim population has grown rapidly in Europe and North America in the past two decades. Living in a cultural/religious island within American society, young Arab Muslims find America is what the consumer magazine called “a laboratory for re-examination of their faith.” They are finding ways to balance many of the tensions over traditional thought and religious practices, as well as racial and ethnic politics, economic opportunities, and religious traditions. Today, through the media, social media and the internet, the Muslim youth are bombarded with so much information on western culture, which greatly influences them and they tend to forget about their own culture and way of life. Now, as the third generation of this powerful communication device has been launched early this year, a pragmatic assessment of social, economic, and cultural change is necessary. Adaptation of Islamic peoples into a secular society depends on their resourcefulness. Alternatives to such entertainment have been scarce until recently. 8–13. The Failure of Political Islam, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Even though tensions are not entirely resolved, the promise of mutual understanding is making inroads in the uncertain relations between Islam as one of the world’s great religious traditions, and the predominantly Christian West. Tavakoliyazdi, M. Assimilation and Status Attainment of Middle-Eastern Immigrants in the United States, PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1981. The Impact of Islam . The production scrupulously avoided un-Islamic images and messages. The first waves of Arabic immigrants from Lebanon and Syria occurred in the 1870s and 1880s (Haddad, 1997). From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Schlesinger, P. “Islam, Postmodernity, and the Media: An Interview with Akbar S. Ahmed,” Media, Culture, and Society, 15, 1, 1993, pp. Haddad, Y.Y. He argued that Muslims should not fear globalization and should seek to benefit from all the means of progress in science, economics and wealth. “Preface,” B. Ye’or. Among the media personalities who are variously identified as representative of the Islam cultural tradition are numerous professional athletes who have changed their names (i.e., boxer Muhammad Ali).2. 9–28. Islam and Christianity in Africa have many differences that are influenced by African traditions and customs, but the basis of both religions are strongly influenced by other parts of the world. Mowlana, H. “The New Global Order and Cultural Ecology,” Media, Culture, and Society, 15, 1, 1993, pp. The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam, Canbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1985, pp. A popular recording artist and folk singer in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Stevens changed his name to Yusuf Islam in 1977, after his conversion to the Islamic faith. While Israel inevitably imports Western influence into the world of Islam, other forces beyond Israel are in play—satellite TV, the internet, movies, McDonald’s, godless physics, too low oil prices, unfavorable exchange rates, and so on and on. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991. The Western media offend Muslims at two levels: first, Muslims are often demonized in media programs as fundamentalists, terrorists, or religious zealots; and, second, many Western cultural practices, including drinking alcohol, gambling, and permissive sexual activities are too offensive for Islamic moral-ethical tradition. Those most severely punished on the Day of Judgment—along with the murderer of a prophet and the seducer from true knowledge—will be the maker of images or pictures (Boorstin, 1992). Muslims’ compatibility with Western cultural values taps into the broader question of how they have adapted to conditions historically in all their respective host nations. Islamic influence upon the local Western ‘successor-states’ of the Arab Empire was naturally still more wide and deep. Is it possible that these Muslim Youth are losing their cultural identity? Islamic influence on Western Europe. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Influence Of Islam And Western Culture. 191, 5 Nov 1998). Some Islamic leaders do promote the goal of internationalization and globalization. A growing consensus, however, suggests Islamic- Western tensions may be growing with the expanding information society (Yamani, 1994). So, what happened was I became very famous. Of particular relevance, Yusuf Islam agreed to act as a spokesperson for the Islamic community in the heat of the ideological battle over Salman Rushdie’s controversial novel The Satanic Verses (1988). : How do you think these influences reached the Muslims? Said argued, “The Arab and Islamic world remains a second-order power in terms of the production of [global] culture, knowledge, and scholarship” (p. 323). Used by permission of the authors. 170–193. Most Arab regimes were apprehensive of the negative political impact of direct TV broadcasting. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, New York: Oxford University Press, Vol. But there is no Islamophobic joy in Mudville because the United States is seemingly the only Western country which has zero influence from Muslims or Islamic culture: Muslims aren’t really seen, nor discussed, nor in any positions of power. Mowlana H. (1996). Regarded as a national political-religious movement, the Black Muslim movement leaves few doubts as to their distinctly Islamic national identity, but they tend to displace traditional Islamic religious discourse in the public sphere with American racial politics. Where they gained a foothold, Islam creates a “highly distinctive” communication system with “considerable influence on the content, production, and distribution of modern communications media” (Mowlana, 1985, p. 406). Western values are propagated by TV programs via satellite into the Islamic nations of the Middle East, Asia, and North Africa. “Islam Partially Perceived,” First Things, 59, 1996, pp. In turn CAIR publishes national “action alerts” about media problems, such as topics on radio talk shows, magazine articles, and books. Egypt, in particular, has become the leading source of offending programs and publications. The ceiling at the Capella is similar to some Islamic buildings in Fez and Fustat and reflect the Muqarnas technique in which emphasizing three-dimensional element. Others have observed the struggle to develop a comprehensive theory for mass communication to compete with Western theories of communication (Hussain, 1986; Pasha, 1993; El-Affendi, 1993; and Al-Hajji, 1998). Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1997. Yamani, M. A. Pasha, S. “Toward a Cultural Theory of Political Ideology and Mass Media in the Muslim World.” Media, Culture, and Society, 15, 1993, pp. Parent’s Manual: A Guide for Muslim Parents Living in North America, Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1976. Yet, in the midst of these uncertain encounters, Islam and Western society are finding ways to adapt, if incompletely, to each other’s worldviews and values. In Nigeria, western education has greatly influenced the teaching of Islamic education considering the fact that most Islamic schools now adopt some western approach of education. Despite the discrimination issue of Asian and Middle Eastern people in Western countries, the West once inspired by the East. Within Arab nations with controlled borders, the deluge of messages and images conveyed by communication technologies from around the world is perceived as a “cultural invasion” (Ghaffari-Farhangi, 1999). : In what other areas do you feel westernization has had a negative influence? Show More. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. As Islam spread across the Arabian Peninsula and later across North Africa and the Middle East, it had an aggregating effect. Korzenny, F. & Ting-Toomey, S. Mass Media Effects Across Cultures. Esposito J. The Thread of Conversation: How Do Non-Mormon Individuals and Groups in Utah Maintain Their Cultural Identity? In his opinion, Muslims should be careful to protect themselves from the negative effects of this kind of expansion, remaining aware of the danger of being dissolved in the world and losing their identity (“An Interview with Egypt’s Mufti,” 1998). 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